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Flashcards in CVR Deck (11):

Bronchial Tree Anatomy

Trachea splits into bronchi. Right brochi is slightly larger. Bronchi are lined with same type of mucus as the rest of the respiratory tract.
Role= distribute air around the lungs
Alveoli exchange CO2 and O2


Lobe Anatomy Right Lung

Right lung= upper, middle and lower lobe. Divided by 2 fissures- oblique and horizontal
- upper lobe is the largest. Extends from the apex of lung to horizontal and oblique fissures.
- middle lobe is the smallest. Located between horizontal and oblique fissures.
- lower beneath the oblique fissure


Left Lobe Anatomy

Left lung is smaller and narrower. 2 loves divided by the oblique fissure.
Upper lobe is above the oblique fissure
Lower lobe is below the oblique fissure


What is a fissure?

Double fold of visceral pleura forming a lung lobe


Pleura Anatomy

Visceral= envelops the lung
Parietal= lines the inner chest wall
Pleural fluid lubricates the membranes


Mechanics of breathing

Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract.

When diaphragm contracts it flattens- pressing down on abdominal contents and lifting thoracic cavity

Increasing the volume within the thoracic cavity

Contraction of the external intercostal muscles lead to elevation of ribs and sternum

Increase in lung volume

Causing a decrease in pressure

Pressure outside lungs is larger compared to the inside

Air rushes into the lungs as gas molecules

Move from an area of high pressure to low pressure


Muscles of inspiration

Diaphragm is the main muscle of inspiration

External intercostal- elevate ribs


Accessory muscles of inspiration

Strenocleidmastoid elevates the sternum

Scalenes- elevate and fix the upper ribs


Mechanics of Breathing

Diaphragm and external l


Treatments available

Pain management
Smoking cessation
Weight loss
General health management
Skin health
MDT: OT, dietician, specialist nurses
Psychological support


COPD explanation

Causes: smoking (toxins). Long term damage to lungs

COPD is an umbrella term for CB and Emphysema