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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (28):
1

Brain anatomy (minus lobes)

Composed of cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem
2 hemispheres-control contra lateral side
Right- spatial abilities, facial recognition, visual imagery, music
Left- maths, language, logic
Corpus Collumsum joins them together- intracerebral communication
Longitudinal and transverse fissures

2

What are the lobes?

Frontal
Occipital
Parietal
Temporal

3

Frontal lobe

Front of central sulcus
Reasoning, planning, parts of speech, behaviour, voluntary movement, emotions, problem solving, brocad motor speech centre in the left hemisphere

4

Parietal lobe

Behind central sulcus
Processing perceptual info-touch, pressure, temperature, proprioception
Contains primary and sensory association centres.

5

What are the two types of stroke?

Occlusive
Haemorrhagic

6

Why do haemorrhaging strokes occur?

Weakened blood vessel or brain aneurysm
Blood accumulates increasing the pressure within the brain tissue
2 types- intracerebral or subarachnoid

Intracerebral--> blood leaks causing the brain tissue to die. The affected part of the brain may stop working. Causes may include high blood pressure or age

Subarachnoid--> blood leaks into the area between the brain and covering tissue

7

Why do occlusive strokes occur?

Blockage- blood clot or other matter such as an air bubble. This is known as a embolism

Atherosclerosis may also be the cause. This is when fatty deposits build up on the indie walls of arteries. This causes the walls to harden and narrow

Other factors such as small vessel disease, heart conditions or arterial dissection may increase the chances.

8

What are the methods of assessment?

Accessory movements

Active and passive ROM

Shut eyes test

Sensory testing

9

Accessory movements

High tone patients will require accessory movements first

Opening of hands and feet

Accessory movements are joint movements that cannot be performed by the individual. They are examined passively to assess range and symptom response

10

Active and passive ROM

Allows you to see what levels of movement that they have

Can be used to increase the ROM

Use isotonic testing as it is more functional. Use the Oxford scale to test this.

11

Closed eyes test

Close eyes of patient.

Move affected limb into a position

Ask the patient to copy on the unaffected body part

Helps to show proprioception

12

Sensory testing

Only for parietal lobe stroke

Hot and cold, blunt and sharp, soft and hard pressure

Tracts include: pain is the lateral spinothalmic tract

13

What is the homunculus?

Entire body is represented spatially on the cortex in terms of if the amount of innervation

Motor and sensory

14

Stroke facts

3rd biggest killer
900,000 have shad strokes
150,000 a year
30% die, 30% normal, 40% disabled

15

What does the brain require?

Metabolism of the brain is aerobic

Consumes 25% of oxygen the body intakes

15% of cardiac output goes to brain

16

Risk factors that cause strokes

Hypertension
Is Ischaemic heart disease
Smoking
Diabetes
Alcohol
Obesity
Sedentary lifestyle

17

When is recovery greatest

The first 3 weeks

18

Clinical presentation for occlusive

Post cerebral artery
- visual defects
- memory problems
- sensory loss

Anterior Cerebral Arteries
-Behavioural
- Sensory loss
- Monoplegia leg

19

Clinical presentation intracerebral

L

20

Occlusive management

Bed rest
Analgesia
CTscan
Angiogram
Aneurysm repair

21

Intracerebral stroke management

Bed rest
ICU
WAIT AND SEE
evacuation of haemotoma
Haemotoma superficial

22

General management of stroke

Medical
Hospital admission
CT scan helping to diagnose
Ultrasound of neck arteries
Chest XRay, ECG, BP, blood cholestral

Medical treatment
Thrombolytic agents
Anticoagulant therapy
Presentation of CVA

23

Risk factors of stroke

Hypertension
Obesity
Alcohol
Diabetes
Smoking
Ischaemic heart disease

24

Causes of occlusive stroke

Obstruction or blockage- blood clot, embolism, turbulent blood flow

Atherosclerosis- fatty deposits build up on inside walls or arteries. Hardening and narrowing

25

Clinical presentation of occlusive strokes

Posterior Cerebral Artery- visual effects, memory problems, sensory loss

Anterior cerebral artery- behavioural problems, sensory loss

26

What is fall in cerebral blood flow called

Infarction

27

Subarachnoid stroke
What percent?
Causes?

6% of stoked

Cerebral arteries lie between arachnoid and pia Mater

Aneurysm

28

Management of subarachnoid stroke

Bed rest
Analgesia
CT scan
Angiogram
Aneurysm repair