Flashcards in Neuro Deck (28):
Brain anatomy (minus lobes)
Composed of cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem
2 hemispheres-control contra lateral side
Right- spatial abilities, facial recognition, visual imagery, music
Left- maths, language, logic
Corpus Collumsum joins them together- intracerebral communication
Longitudinal and transverse fissures
What are the lobes?
Front of central sulcus
Reasoning, planning, parts of speech, behaviour, voluntary movement, emotions, problem solving, brocad motor speech centre in the left hemisphere
Behind central sulcus
Processing perceptual info-touch, pressure, temperature, proprioception
Contains primary and sensory association centres.
What are the two types of stroke?
Why do haemorrhaging strokes occur?
Weakened blood vessel or brain aneurysm
Blood accumulates increasing the pressure within the brain tissue
2 types- intracerebral or subarachnoid
Intracerebral--> blood leaks causing the brain tissue to die. The affected part of the brain may stop working. Causes may include high blood pressure or age
Subarachnoid--> blood leaks into the area between the brain and covering tissue
Why do occlusive strokes occur?
Blockage- blood clot or other matter such as an air bubble. This is known as a embolism
Atherosclerosis may also be the cause. This is when fatty deposits build up on the indie walls of arteries. This causes the walls to harden and narrow
Other factors such as small vessel disease, heart conditions or arterial dissection may increase the chances.
What are the methods of assessment?
Active and passive ROM
Shut eyes test
High tone patients will require accessory movements first
Opening of hands and feet
Accessory movements are joint movements that cannot be performed by the individual. They are examined passively to assess range and symptom response
Active and passive ROM
Allows you to see what levels of movement that they have
Can be used to increase the ROM
Use isotonic testing as it is more functional. Use the Oxford scale to test this.
Closed eyes test
Close eyes of patient.
Move affected limb into a position
Ask the patient to copy on the unaffected body part
Helps to show proprioception
Only for parietal lobe stroke
Hot and cold, blunt and sharp, soft and hard pressure
Tracts include: pain is the lateral spinothalmic tract
What is the homunculus?
Entire body is represented spatially on the cortex in terms of if the amount of innervation
Motor and sensory
3rd biggest killer
900,000 have shad strokes
150,000 a year
30% die, 30% normal, 40% disabled
What does the brain require?
Metabolism of the brain is aerobic
Consumes 25% of oxygen the body intakes
15% of cardiac output goes to brain
Risk factors that cause strokes
Is Ischaemic heart disease
When is recovery greatest
The first 3 weeks
Clinical presentation for occlusive
Post cerebral artery
- visual defects
- memory problems
- sensory loss
Anterior Cerebral Arteries
- Sensory loss
- Monoplegia leg
Clinical presentation intracerebral
Intracerebral stroke management
WAIT AND SEE
evacuation of haemotoma
General management of stroke
CT scan helping to diagnose
Ultrasound of neck arteries
Chest XRay, ECG, BP, blood cholestral
Presentation of CVA
Risk factors of stroke
Ischaemic heart disease
Causes of occlusive stroke
Obstruction or blockage- blood clot, embolism, turbulent blood flow
Atherosclerosis- fatty deposits build up on inside walls or arteries. Hardening and narrowing
Clinical presentation of occlusive strokes
Posterior Cerebral Artery- visual effects, memory problems, sensory loss
Anterior cerebral artery- behavioural problems, sensory loss
What is fall in cerebral blood flow called
6% of stoked
Cerebral arteries lie between arachnoid and pia Mater