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Flashcards in Cyber crime Deck (23):

What are the 3 major transnational concerns with cybercrime according to the lecture slides?

1. Access to obscene materials (CDA 1996) - porn industry were the first concerned and first to regulate
2. Intellectual property rights - little chance of being caught
3. Protection of Minors (EU Action Plan 1997)


What are the 3 major UK concerns for the NCA and the National Cyber Security Strategy?

1. Fraud/Identity Theft - more concern due to large scale attacks such as talk talk
2. Paedophilia (CJPOA 1994, SOA 2003)
3. National Security (NCSS 2011) - can attack other countries national security


Why is it more useful to talk of policing cybercrime as 'governance'

“regulation of relationships in complex systems”
Multiple users at multiple stages therefore really hard to govern


Why does cybercrime policing link to nodal governance?

- 'tiered approach'
- needs to be dealt with in a pluralised way
- Mix of public/private, state/non-state, national/inter-national institutions and practices
- Diverse, dynamic, decentralised approach


What makes up the hierarchical regulatory network?

- Global International regulatory solutions by the likes of OECD and the United Nations
- Regional supranational legislation
- Regulations by individual governments at a national or local level
- Self-imposed regulation by the ISPs with industry wide codes of conduct
- Trans-national and national pressure groups made up of end-users
- Rating systems such as Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS).
- Self-imposed domestic and corporate regulation
- Hotlines and pressure organisations to report illegal content such as child pornography


What is 'WARP' initiative?

- Current non-Police Initiative in the UK
- WARP (Warning, Advice and Reporting Points)
- Part of CPNI (Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure)
- Currently under 10 in UK (none located in Wales)
- Based around Government departments, education, health, policing and SMEs


What is CERT-UK, what do they do?

- Current non-Police Initiative in the UK
- Incident management
- Support CNI
- Raising awareness


What is CISP?

- Current non-Police Initiative in the UK
- Cyber Security Information Sharing Partnership (CISP)
- ‘Fusion Cell’ analyse cyber threats and inform partners
- companies can privately admit to being victims of mass cybercrime
- 1500 organisations and 4000 individuals


What are the 5 given Current non-Police Initiatives in the UK?

4. Get safe online
5. Wales ecrime partnership


What are the current parts of the NCA that deal with cybercrime?

1. CEOP Command
which Coordinates child protection online and offline
2. Economic Crime Command which deals with Money laundering; International corruption; Fraud; Counterfeit Currency


What do the National Cybercrime unit do?

Investigate; Target hardening; Intelligence; Partnership.


What does the Met police Cybercrime unit deal with?

Malware; Phishing; Hacking; DoS; IP theft; Fraud


What 5 current police initatives are there?

1. NCA & National cybercrime unit
2. Action Fraud & National Fraud Intelligence Bureau (City of London Police)
3. Met Police Cybercrime Unit
4. Regional Organised Crime units (ROCUs)
5. Force level Economic and Cybercrime units


current policy initiative: National Security Strategy of the UK (HM Government, 2010) have said WHAT about cybercrime?

Cybercime a tier one threat (above organised crime)
More likely to be a victim of cybercrime than any other crime


What do current policy initiatives say that the UK Cyber Security Strategy (Cabinet Office, 2011) should be doing?

- Becoming a safe place to do business in cyberspace
- Being more resilient to cyber attack
- Building key public/private partnerships to promote cross-border cyber security
- Enhancing the UK's cyber security knowledge and skills capability


What does policy initiatives show about the focus of policing cyber crime? (NCA)

Emphasis on big business and national security
Lack of focus upon domestic concerns


Explain the eCrime partnership Mapping study... (Levi & Williams 2011)

Perceptions and measures of eCrime prevalence largely symmetrical

Significant gaps in cooperation frequency and quality between government and finance sector and private sector other (SMEs?)

Third sector organisations and local government on the periphery of the UKIA network


What is the tri-modal regulation model for cybercrime?

1) Law - retroactive
2) Market/social - retroactive e.g. other internet users shame others as a form of disciplining
3) Technical - Proactive e.g. situational preventative methods


What is on each side of the proximal vs. Distal regulation argument?

- ISP fair use policies
- Online community rules and regs
- Virtual Police Services
- Law
- Terrestrial Police
- Market regulation


How can routine activities theory be applied to policing cyber crime?

- Offender, Opportunity, Lack of guardianship
- Williams (2015) found that personal guardianship (installing anti-virus, changing passwords) reduced online ID theft
- Country internet penetration also reduced victimisation
- National cyber security strategy made personal guardianship more effective


What are the 3 parts of Boyle's 1997 'internet holy trinity'?

1. technology of the medium
2. geographical distribution of its users
3. nature of its content


What are the 6 features of Lessig and 'digital realism'?

1. Disrupt human action
2. Technology is malleable
3. Pervasive technology
4. Rapidly adaptive
5. Preventative
6. Non-contentious


What is Hosein, Tsiavos and Whitley's (2003) critcisms of technology as a regulator?

1. Technology a biased cultural artefact
2. Code-writers as alternative sovereigns