Flashcards in Policing terrorism and counter-terrorism Deck (29):
- No universal definition, and term is subjected to continuing debate
- Tends to be politically motivated and , violence and target dramatic
- Starting point definition: 'the use of violence for political ends, and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public or any section of the public in fear' (Prevention of Terrorism (temporary provisions) Act, 1989)
What is 'Hillyard's Suspect Community' (1993)?
- Rose out of troubled in Northern Ireland
- legislative basis: 1974 Prevention of Terrorism Act
- A longevity that belied its temporary status, aka act gives untrue representation of Irish, whom are immediately seen as criminals
- A dual system of justice: Laws and policing for Ordinary decent criminals and draconian system to deal with Irish ‘terrorism’
- The use of special police powers such as trawling for information but to ‘to the extent that the legislation is principally directed at Irish people, it is an example of institutionalised racism’ (1993: 257-8)
- suspect communities are directed at due to terrorism and if arrested they are treated more severely
- Hillyard’s model has been challenged (Greer, 2008; 2010)
How have Pantazis and Pemberton (2009) applied Hillyard's theory to Muslims?
- Highlights impact of legislation on individuals and communities and how democratic values might be undermined by the pursuit of achieving greater security
- Argued that 'new terrorism' discourses identify Islamic fanaticism as the greatest threat to Western Liberal Democracy
- The legislative basis: Terrorism Act 2000 (Criminalises/becomes suspicious of the Proscription of groups, and Connection with minority ethnic and refugee communities despite intentions)
- The dual system of criminal justice: 1) Stop and search and ‘ethnic profiling’ 2) Extension of pre-charge detention 3) Control orders
- An increasing shift towards pre-emption?
- Break down of police-community relationship therefore less information is passed on
- Radicalisation continues
- Community relations: ‘once a community is treated as ‘suspect’ by the police, the public are encouraged to do the same
What does Spalek (2008) add to the discussion that the muslim community is a suspect community?
- Assesses research findings in terms of ‘effective’ police-community engagement and partnership, and policy development
- The importance of dialogue and trust building
- The need to acknowledge grievances
- 'active citizenship' for Muslims is to some extent framed as a CT strategy
-Counter terrorism methodologies and future developments
- e.g. The purpose of CT needs to be clearly defined in engagement work
- e.g. Engaging ‘radicals’ [but risk of being ‘conned’]
- e.g. It is vital to have religious knowledge
- e.g. Inclusivity, gender and youth.
- How do you measure success?
What did Spalek and Imoual, 2007: 194 say about Muslim communities?
an assumption that Muslim communities remain the ‘locus of the issue of extremism’
What does Fekete (2004) say about Mosques?
Fekete (2004: 25) has suggested, public policy engaging with Muslims amounts to being ‘tough on mosques, tough on the causes of mosques’ – at a political level it is nonetheless the case that there is an expectation that Muslims tackle extremism
Why is secrecy important in CT and T activities?
- Secrecy required to plot plan to circumvent agencies or agents & also threaded through methodologies and cultures of gov. agencies.
- Keeping key practices in the shadows it is argued necessary condition for sustaining the effectiveness of CT measures
- Need to counteract the way in which their own operational secrecy negates levels of social trust and democratic accountability.
- Penetrating the secrecy of their adversaries in order to achieve tactical advantage.
- However.... both t & Ct require a degree of public knowledge, however manipulated or mediated it may be. Terrorism as a strategy is predicated upon generating publicity
What are the key aims of CT methods to prevent Terrorism? (4)
- Create the perception of a hostile environment for the terrorists by creating the illusion that there are informants or undercover cops involved.
- CT also has to be balanced with a need to reassure government and the public.
- Establishing and maintain trust in moral standing of CT agencies are critical for effective CT.
- CT & T are not reflections of each others moves and responses, its more of a refraction, distorted impression of one another due to clandestine operations and other influences, mainly political
What has Brodeur said about the reconfiguration of policing?
High police functions such as MI5, security and Intelligence Service, CT, CID
Low Police functions such as Neighbourhood policing, multi-agency work, etc
- These boundaries have changed over time. Hierarchical organised CT structures it worked, the more non hierarchical cells.
What government CT structures are there? (4)
Who is this directed through?
Ministerial Committee on National Security (NSID)
Directed through the Home Office: Office for Security & Counter Terrorism (OSCT)
What are the 4 tiers from the diagram of policing structures?
TOP: ACPO - Association of Chief Police Officers & TAM
2nd: Counter-terrorism command (CTC) & SO15
3rd: CTUs and CTIU (counter-terrorism intelligence units)
4th: Local policing
What 8 structures make up UK intel?
1) ISC - international security conference
2) JIC - Joint intel centre
5) JTAC (joint terrorism attack centre)
7) DIS (defensive investigative service)
Europes CT agency rescourses - how much budget and how many staff...
UK - 1.9 billion and 3,800 staff
beligum - 126 million and 500 staff
France - 208 mil and 3,600 staff
Spain - n/a budget and n/a staff
What do MI5 do?
- MI5 monitors about 3,000 so-called “subjects of interest” (SoIs) — deems national security threat because of their ties with Islamic extremism
- MI5 uses a calibrated framework for investigations into terror SoIs: all are assigned a prioritisation, on a ranking of P1-P4. Each individual connected to such investigations is given a tier indicating their centrality to any plot, from T1-T3.
- Takes about 10 people to monitor one suspect 24 hours
Why is the security services of MI5 less effective at classifying people on the periphery? (4)
- Complex charts to map IRA terror cells and their rigid structures
- then al-Qaeda networks, more cellular but dependent on chains of communication and command.
- Now potential terror suspects are like “particles in a teapot”, sometimes linked, sometimes not –
- difficult to judge risks from lone wolves - who may or may not be muslim
What is the UK response to terrorism?
CONTEST (HM Government July 2011)
What are the 4 Ps for CT?
What is meant by 'Pursue'?
On Pursue, the central aim is to increase the capability for covert detection and investigation. Some of this will lead to extra convictions.
Since CONTEST how has terror-related arrested changed?
Since 2010, over 140 individuals have been convicted in the UK courts of terrorism related offences, and in 2014 there were 327 arrests, up 32% on the previous year.
All police forces are assessed in terms of PREVENT Performance. Who has been given prevent funding by the police?
- the Muslim Council of Wales for activities including a "youth leadership" project, teaching imams to improve their English and training people to identify and deconstruct "extremist messages"
- Manchester City Council, for interactive workshops to educate young people about the dangers of terrorism, and educate staff on warning signs of extremist activity
- The UK also works "closely with countries where those who support terrorism and promote extremism are most active", e.g. Pakistan, the Middle East and East Africa.
Of the people who flee to Syria to join ISIS, how much were previously unknown to the security services?
nearly half of all the people who have travelled to Syria for a jihadist cause were previously unknown to the security services – so outside immediate Prevent range
Where does most radicalisation occur??
Over the internet, in private
What are the problems with prevent and protect programmes? (2)
1) suspect community e.g. CCTV cameras in Muslim areas of Birmingham - 72 of them hidden - were partly funded by Home Office counter-terrorism cash
2) How are schools and universities supposed to spot ‘violent extremism’?
What is 'channel'?
Channel is an intensive one-to-one mentoring programme to challenge violent views through deprogramming and rewiring an individual.
What is the police progress in prevent and protect schemes?(4)
- 50% increase in cash seizures and stops at ports/airports
- 60% increase in referrals to official de-radicalisation scheme
- "thousands" of pieces of extremist material removed from internet. The UK Counter-Terrorism Network state they are now taking down around 1000 websites a week linked to jihadist propaganda, but these are rapidly replaced.
- In 12 mths to end October 2015 six viable mass casualty plots were disrupted, where a few years ago the Met were dealing with one maybe two per annum.
How are controls being put out on 'financing terrorism'?
- Buying and making bombs/Improvised Explosive Devices is cheap
- Charities Commission: ‘Two charities under investigation over Cage payments’
- Cutting off remittance funds to Somalia and Pakistan counter-productive for CT aims
What does the counter-extremist strategy proposal 2015 say? (4)
- Aim of suppressing extremist activity
- Banning order to outlaw extremist organisations and closure orders to shut down the premises they operate on
- redefined terrorism as 'vocal or active opposition to fundamental British Values'
- Incorporating more crimes as terror-related e.g. restrictions on free speech
What is a criticism of prevent CT methods?
- If taken wrong way could be seen as islamicphobia and promoting illiberalism
- pushing those who are already fragile closer to the edge e.g. donald trump
- Although, so far prevent doesnt seem to have damaged the relations with muslims