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Flashcards in DV and HBV Deck (20):

Why is it hard to define DV?

- Highly subjective
- DV requires the victim to identify the crime as DV


From Stanko (2001)'s research how many calls are there for assistance to DV a day?



From Stanko (2001)'s research, 1 in ?? crimes of violence in London were DV - Which is the equivalent of 1 call per ...

1 in 4


From Stanko (2001)'s research, what is the percentage of:
a) female victim, male offender
b) male victim, female offender
c) male victim, male offender
d) female victim, female offender

a) 81%
b) 8%
c) 7%
d) 4%


What is the historical police response to DV?

- Historically, arrest was seen as a last resort
- Police should help keep ‘family unit’ together
DV considered a ‘private matter’
- Police culture view of DV as ‘garbage work’
- Training encouraged officers to mediate the situation or separate the parties, not to formally intervene by making arrests
- Lack of standardised policy on response to DV = increased police discretion = variation in response


What factors have contributed to the change in police response towards policing DV?

1) Women’s liberation movement - Media attention on domestic violence; First refuges for female victims set up
2) Court cases - Victims not provided with ‘equal protection under the law’; Police sued for failure to protect
3) Criminological research - Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (Sherman & Berk, 1984); Deterrent effect of arrest


What did the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (Sherman & Berk, 1984) do and what was the outcome?

- needed to make an arrest but needed to listen to both parties
- after this experiment they changed they policy and arrest doubled
- Listening to victims had a positive effect


What are the victims perspectives on the policing of DV? (4)

1) Hierarchy of seriousness of abuse the victims perceive the police to have e.g. financial abuse brushed over compared to other forms of abuse
2) Shouldnt be up to the victim to decide if its DV or not, as they are less likely to accuse partner
3) Need police to take into account whether victims have a support network or not
4) CPS have even caused 'secondary victimisation' within the courts as their experiences are bad


What is the South Wales Police DV Policy? (5)

“Committed to taking positive action in all cases of domestic violence”
1) Officer should first protect victim (and children) from any further abuse
2) Officer must hold offender accountable
3) Where a power of arrest exists, the alleged offender should normally be arrested
4) Officer must be able to justify any decision not to arrest
5) Arrest is explicitly the preferred response


What is the three stage approach in Britain on DV which has a focus on risk?

1) Risk identification (DASH)
2) Risk assessment (Police/IDVAs)
3) Risk management (MARACs) - Management of risk: very ‘high risk’ victims receive specialist intervention


What are the key risk factors of DV outlined by Robinson and Howarth (2012)? (10)

1) Perpetrator exhibiting jealous/controlling behaviour
2) Stalking
3) Victim perceptions
4) Afraid of being killed
5) Afraid of further injury or violence
6) Afraid for the children
7) Is very frightened
8) Significant injuries
9) Relationship separation
10) Perpetrator has prior criminal record


What are MARAC?

- Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences for very high risk victims
- Aim to share information, create action plan, reduce risk and recidivism, monitor and review existing plans
- Involves: Police, Probation, Women’s Aid, NSPCC, Social Services (children and adult services), Cardiff Women’s Safety Unit, Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse workers, BAWSO, Housing Services


What agencys helped in the MARAC case study and what could they do? (6)

1) Police - flag address to ensure a speedy response in event of further reports. A specialist police officer to offer support if victim contacts the police in future
2) education - Agree to provide extra emotional support to the children
3) Children and Young People Services - To reassess the risks facing the children
4) Asian Women’s Service - Women’s outreach service to prioritise support for victim
5) Hospital A&E - To flag victim’s files to ensure that staff are informed and offer treatment in a separate area from her husband if she attends again
6) IDVA - Inform victim of the agreed actions from the MARAC. To offer victim assistance with organising an appointment with a solicitor to explore civil injunctions. To inform the other agencies of any further developments.


What is the definition of HBV?

‘A crime or incident which has or may have been committed to protect of defend the honour of the family and/or community’ (ACPO)


Why does HBV occur?

Tends to be because Victims’ personal conduct brings ‘shame’ on family e.g. refusing an arranged marriage, having an unapproved relationship
Shamed families are excluded and harrassed by the community and therefore violence is used to restore status and end harrassment


Who are typically the victims and offenders of HBV?

Victims are usually women; offenders are usually family or known community members
Male victims are usually victimised due to a females behaviour


What kind of violence can HBV include?

Violence can include abduction, assault and murder.
Often escalate quickly


What is the prevalence of HBV and problems with determining this?

- 11,000 cases of ‘honour crime’ recorded by police forces 2010-14’ (included forced marriage and FGM)
- huge dark figure
- Crimes often dont get reported as 'HBV' just the ordinary crime


What are the problems with policing HBV?

Community: tight knit communities collaborate together and have their own networks, therefore high levels of secrecy and isolation from the police and wider communities
Cultural insensitivity - police deemed to be imposing western values on ethnic communities
Potential international dimension - cross boarders


What are the posed solutions to policing HBV?

1) Liaison and referral with social services and NGOs
2) Improving relationships with minority communities
3) Education - educating local communities and police to deal with the issue better
4) Prosecution of all conspirators (not those directly involved in violence) e.g. ones turning a blind eye
5) Investigation of missing persons, suspicious suicides and accidental deaths