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CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY SAFETY > CYBERCRIME > Flashcards

Flashcards in CYBERCRIME Deck (22)
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1

what is cyber crime?

- criminal groups target individuals, groups + large corporate networks to steal personal info

2

cyber crime against consumers

- phishing
- webcam manager
- file hijacker
- key logging
- screenshot manager
- ad clicker

3

cyber crime against business

- hacking
- distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks

4

Holt et al (2015) - hacking

- not necessarily a crime
- can be applied in many ways depending on ethical perspective of actor
- modification/alteration of computer hardware/software to enable tech to be used in new way

5

Brenner (2008) - hacking

- most common targets ---> individual computer users, private industry and governments

6

Holt et al. (2015) - phishing

attempts to obtain sensitive financial info from victims to engage in identity theft and fraud

7

Bergh + Junger (2018) - prevalence

- annual crime prevalence rates ranged from 1-6% for hacking
- estimates for being a victims of malware - 2-15%
- hard to estimate due to variation in methods and questioning between countries

8

crimes and offences

- antisocial behaviour (ASB)
- theft and fraud
- hate crime
- exploitation
- terrorism and hacking

9

EU commission

general policy on the fight against cyber crime

10

legislation relating to ICT crime

- computer misuse act 1990
- communications act 2003
- digital economy act 1959
- data protection act 1998

11

technology and policing - overarching issues

- question of balance - liberty vs. security
- current narratives mirror some historical concerns ---> links between control of communication systems and exercise of power (Innish, 1950)
- surveillance discourse

12

technology and policing - listening, watching, sensing and tracking

- profound ability to monitor has been reluctant in claim that surveillance society has emerged (Lyon, 2007)
- full spectrum surveillance through digitization

13

methods employed by the state often similar in character to those employed by others such as:

- legitimate parties ---> consumer surveillance (e.g. cookies)
- illegitimate parties ---> individual offenders and serious organised crime (e.g. hacking, identity theft, fraud and trolls)

14

hot products targeted by theives are generally: (Clarke, 1999)

- Concealable
- Removable
- Available
- Valuable
- Enjoyable
- Disposable

15

Newman + Clarke (2003) - internet as a criminogenic environment

- Stealth
- Challenge
- Reconnaissance
- Escape
- Multiplicity

16

worthley + smallbone (2006)

- child sexual abuse in new tech
- fundamental principle of SCP is that crime follows opportunity

17

responsibility of cybercrime prevention?

- education/awareness
- online content providers - place managers (Eck, 2003)
- online users + supervision of users (e.g. individual users, parents and guardians)

18

reducing opportunities through SCP

- rational choice theory (Clarke + Cornish, 1985)
- crime pattern theory (Brantingham + Brantingham, 1993)

19

preventions of what?

- email
- blog
- social networking sites
- message boards/forums
- online dating sites
- messaging services
- text messages
- video mesages
- chat rooms

20

Eddosl (2016)

- success of internet based software masked the fact that there are many security flaws

21

risk management

- understand what makes organisation attractive to cyber criminals and main vulnerabilities
- only 37% if companies have cyber incident response plan

22

Buono (2014)

- strategic intelligence/analysis is vital in fight against cyber crime ---> data gatherin