KNIVES, GANGS AND VIOLENCE Flashcards Preview

CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY SAFETY > KNIVES, GANGS AND VIOLENCE > Flashcards

Flashcards in KNIVES, GANGS AND VIOLENCE Deck (30)
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1

instrumental aggression

- found in humans + animals
- 'cold'
- premeditated (usually used as a means to and end)

2

hostile aggression

- found in humans only
- 'hot'

3

impulsive/stimulus seeking violence

- found in humans only
- motivated by desire to hurt someone

4

Intent?

- harm that occurs by accident (with not intent) is not violence

5

violence against the person

- wound/cause grievous bodily harm
- section 18 - wounding with intent
- section 20 - wounding without intent

6

what may indicate intent in violent crimes?

- use of knife
- use of other offensive weapons
- glass/bottle smashed and used to assault
- indication of pre-planning
- words spoken by assailant

7

key points about gangs

- no 2 are the same
- spontaneous, unplanned origins
- engagement in face-to-face meetings and expressive behaviours
- defensive territorial environments
- common beliefs and traditions
- movement through space + engagement in conflict
- police
- other rival gangs

8

UK Home Office Report (2002) - Manchester

- 60% of shootings gang related
- gang membership is lifestyle choice not just about criminality
- membership a mix of same-age local friendship groups, blood relatives + recruits
- carrying of firearms: part protective/part symbolic but also used in crimes sometimes

9

Smithson + Ralphs (2015)

- uk research on gangs minimal
- home office reluctant to use gang terminology
- 'delinquent youth groups'
- youth activity now reframed as gang activity which leads to higher surveillance and higher sense of risk

10

bennett and holloway (2004)

15-25k gang members

11

centre for social justice (2009)

50k gang members

12

stone (2018)

- concern about young people's attraction to knives as weapons
- can be addressed through supply regulation and restriction, education and health initiatives, role mode influence and modification to blade design

13

flatley (2010)

knives taken to be involved in an incident if they are used to stab or cut, or as a threat

14

rising knife crime stats

- crime figures for the 12 months up until march 2017 showed an 18% rise in violent crime + 20% rise in gun/knife crime
- increased in use of bladed weapons in 2016

15

straw et al (2018)

- admission to hospitals with stabbing injuries at highest for 7 years
- shift towards younger victims

16

ITV News (2019)

- theresa may says there's not correlation between a fall in front line police officers and the spike in fatal stabbings
- several senior police officers dispute prime minister's claims

17

Davies (2019) - Telegraph

In London in march there were 6 stabbing sin 6 hours starting at 3:20pm

18

bifurcation (wilson, 2001)

- prison should be reserved for criminals who pose a threat to community
- others should have community based punishments

19

situational crime prevention

- increasing formal surveillance
- electronic alarms
- CCTV
- private security patrols
- neighbourhood watch

20

increasing natural surveillance

- removing obstacles to line of sight
- improving street lighting
- crowding shown to be related to levels of urban crime

21

zero tolerance approaches

punitive sentencing for possession of a night

22

problem orientated policing

responses to young people that identify and address their issues

23

Turner (2019) - The Guardian

- police officers in schools to double in response to knife crime epidemic
- right now --> 420 officers in schools (up from 280 18 months ago)
- goal is 600 in schools

24

living in gang areas

- restricted use of space due to gang rivalries
- results in exclusion, marginalisation and victimisation

- strong gang associations --> difficult for young people to avoid association with gang members

25

ending gang and youth violence report goals

- making gang injunctions available for 14-17 year olds
- mandatory life sentences for second serious offence

26

ending gang and youth violence report - one year on

- made gang injunctions available for under 18s
- introduced new offences of threatening with a knife in a public space/school
- announced intention to introduce new offence of possessing firearms with intent to supply
- dedicated £1.2 million to fund support workers for girls vulnerable to/suffering from gang related sexual violence

27

serious violence strategy

- tackling county lines and misuse of drugs
- early intervention/prevention
- supporting communities and partnerships
- effective law enforcement and criminal justice response
- early intervention and prevention focused on steering young people away from crime and putting in place measures to tackle root causes
- £11 million investment over 2 years
- are social issues being addressed?

28

BMJ

- calls for public health approach
- public health has role in identifying risk and protective factors
- life course approach to violence prevention is useful --> through early years family support, home visits, training in parenting skills and youth support programmes

29

responses

- improve life chances
- investment in education, health and welfare (Gunter, 2018)
- engage with young people and their communities

30

Squire (2009)

- real social problems?
- knife crime always been an issue
- gang involvement may increase knife crime
- coverage of knife crime reproduces fears about youth violence