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Immunology 2.0 > Cytokines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cytokines Deck (50):
1

recruitment of neutrophils is mainly mediated by what family of cytokines

CXC chemokines

2

Monocyte recruitment is more dependent on what family of chemokines

CC chemokines

3

Receptors of chemokines belong to the ______ superfamily

Seven-transmembrane, guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding (G) protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily

4

Chemokine receptors are expressed on all leukocytes, with the greatest number of diversity seen on

T cells

5

The main actions of chemokines are

enhancing adhesion of circulating leukocytes to endothelium through integrin activation and stimulating directed leukocyte movement in tissues by chemoattraction

6

What are chemokine roles in inflammation

  • Increased adhesion of leukocytes in endothelium
  • Migration of leukocytes to site of infection or tissue damage

7

CCL2 (MCP-1)

  • Chemokine Receptor: CCR2
  • Fxn: Mixed leukocyte recruitment (monocyte) 

8

CCL19 (MIP-3beta) 

  • Chemokine receptor: CCR7
  • Fxn: T cell and dendritic cell migration into parafollicular zones of lymph nodes 

9

CCL21 (SLC)

  • Chemokine receptor: CCR7
  • Fxn: T cell and dendritic cell migration into parafollicular zones of lymph nodes

10

CXCL8 (IL-8) 

  • Chemokine receptor: CXCR1, CXCR-2
  • Fxn: Neutrophil recruitment

11

CXCL10 (IP-10)

Chemokine receptor: CXCR3, CXCR3B

Fxn: Effector T cell recruitment

12

CXCL12 (SDF-1alphabeta)

  • Chemokine receptor: CXCR4
  • Fxn: Homing naive B cells to LNs

13

CXCL13 (BCA-1)

  • Chemokine Receptor: CXCR5 
  • Fxn: B cell migration into follicles; T follicular helper cell migration into follicles 

14

XCL1 (Lymphotactin)

  • Chemokine Receptor: XCR1
  • Fxn: T cell and NK cell recruitment

15

CX3CL1 (Fractalkine)

  • Chemokine Receptor: CX3CR1
  • Fxn: T cell, NK cell, and monocyte recruitment; CTL and NK cell activation 

16

Cytokines of innate immunity that result in inflammation

  • TNF
  • IL-1

17

Cytokines of innate immunity that lead to resistance to viral infection 

  • IFN-alpha/beta

18

IFN-gamma functions

macrophage activation

19

IL-12 functions

  • IFN-gamma production by NK cells and T cells

20

IL-15 function(s)

Proliferation of NK cells 

21

Cytokines that control inflammation

  • IL-10
  • TGF-beta

22

IL-2

  • Principal Cell Source
    • T cells
  • Cytokine Receptor and Subunits
    • CD25 (IL-2Ralpha)
    • CD122 (IL-2Rbeta)
    • CD132 (Yc)
  • Principal Cellular Targets and Biologic Effects
    • T cells
      • Proliferation and differentiation into effector and memory cells
      • promotes regualory T cell development, survival, and function
    • NK cells
      • Proliferation and activation
    • B cells
      • Proliferation, antibody synthesis (in vitro)

23

IL-4

  • member of Type I cytokine family
  • Principle cell source: 
    • TH2 cells
    • Mast cells
  • Principle function
    • B cells:
      • Isotype switching to IgE
    • T cells
      • Increases differentiation to TH2 cells
    • Macrophages
      • alternative activation and inhibition of IFN-gamma-mediated classical activation
    • Mast cells
      • Proliferation (in vitro)

24

IL-5

  • Member of Type I cytokine family 
  • Principle cell source:
    • TH2 cells
    • Group 2 innate lymphoid cells
  • Principle function: 
    • Eosinophils: 
      • activation
      • increased generation
    • B cells: 
      • proliferation, IgA produciton (in vitro) 

25

IL-17

  • type I cytokine family
  • Principle Cell source
    • TH17 cells
    • group 3 innate lymphoid cells 
  • Principle functions
    • Endothelial cells 
    • Chemokine produciton
    • Macrophages: 
      • increased chemokine and cyokine production
    • Epithelial cells: 
      • GM-CSF and G-CSF prodution

26

IL-22

  • Type II cytokine family
  • Principle cell source:
    • TH17
  • Principle cellular targets and function:
    • Epithelial cells: 
      • Production of defensins
      • increased barrier function
    • Hepatocytes:
      • Survival

27

BAFF

  • TNF superfamily cytokines
  • Principal cell source
    • Dendritic cells
    • monocytes 
    • follicular dendritic cells 
    • B cells 
  • Principle cell target and function
    • B cells: 
      • survival
      • Isotype switching to IgA

28

APRIL

  • TNF superfamily cytokines
  • Principle cell source
    • T cells
    • dendritic cells
    • monocytes
    • follicualr dendritic cells
  • Principal cell targets and function
    • B cells:
      • survival 
      • proliferation
      • Isotype switching to IgA

29

TGF-beta

  • IL-1 family cytokines 
  • principle cell source: 
    • T cells (mainly Tregs)
    • Macrophages
  • Principle cell target and functions
    • T cells:
      • inhibition of proliferation and effector functions 
      • differentiation of TH17 and Treg
    • B cells:
      • Inhibition of proliferation
      • IgA production
    • Macrophages
      • inhibition of activation 
      • stimulation of angiogenic factors
    • Fibroblasts
      • increased collagen synthesis 

30

IL-18

  • IL-1 family cytokines
  • Principle cell source
    • Monocytes
    • macrophages
    • dendritic cells
    • Kupffer cells 
    • Keratinocytes
    • Chondrocytes
    • synovial fibroblasts
    • osteoblasts
  • Principle targets and functions
    • NK cells and T cells:
      • IFN-gamma synthesis 
    • Monocytes
      • expression of GM-CSF
      • TNF
      • IL-1beta
    • Neutrophils:
      • Activation
      • cytokine release

31

TNF 

  • TNF Superfamily cytokines
  • Principle cell source:
    • Macrophages 
    • NK cells
    • T cells
  • Principle targets and bilogogic effects
    • Endothelial cells:
      • activation (inflammation, coagulation)
    • Neutrophils:
      • Activation 
    • Hypothalamus
      • Fever
    • Muscle, fat: 
      • catabolism (cachexia) 

32

IL-10

  • Type II cytokine family member
  • Principle cell source
    • Macrophages
    • T cells (mainly Tregs)
  • Principal cell targets and functions
    • Macrophages, dendritic cells 
      • inhibition of expression of IL-12, costimulators, and class II MHC

33

IL-22

 

  • Type II cytokine family members 
  • Principle cell source:
    • TH17
  • principle targets and functions:
    • Epithelial cells:
      • production of defensins
      •  increased barrier function
    • Hepatocytes:
      • survival 

34

IL-23

  • Type I cytokine family
  • Principle cell source
    • Macrophages 
    • dendritic cells
  • Principle targets and functions
    • T cells
      • differentiation and expansion of TH17 cells 

35

IL-12

  • Type I cytokine family
  • Principle cell source
    • Macrophages 
    • Dendrites
  • Principle targets and functions
    • T cells
      • TH1 differentiation 
      • IFN-gamma synthesis 
      • increased cytotoxic activity
    • NK cells and T cells:
      • IFN-gamma synthesis 
      • increased cytotoxic activity

36

IL-7

  • Type I cytokine family
  • Principle cell souce
    • Fibroblasts
    • bone marrow stromal cells
  • Principal targets and functions
    • Immature lymphoid progenitors
      • proliferation of early T and B cell progenitors
    • T lymphocytes
      • survival of naive and memory cells 

37

IL-15

  • Type I cytokine family
  • Principle cell source 
    • Macrophages
  • Principle target and function
    • NK cells: 
      • proliferation
    • T cells
      • survival and proliferation fo memory CD8+ cells 

38

CCL25 

  • Receptor: CCR9 
  • Lymphocyte recruitment into lamina propria of intestines

39

  • T cell-independent IgA class switching in the gut

  • TLR ligand-activated DCs secrete BAFF, APRIL, and TGF-Beta which induce IgA class switching in B cells
  • This T cell independent pathway yields relatively low-affinity IgA Ab to intestinal bacteria (meanwhile T dependent produces high-affinity IgA abs)

40

The ____ receptor binds IgA produced in the lamina propria to the base of the epithelial cells. 

 

Poly-Ig Receptor 

41

Are there Th17 cells in the colon

NO

42

Th17 produce IL-17 and IL-22 that have what effects on the GI tract

  • induce expression of mucins and Beta-defensins

43

What are the factors that contribue to the generation of Treg cells in the GI

  • Ag-activated DCs
  • Local production of retinoic acid (which promotes FoxP3 expression)
  • local production of TGF-beta (which also promotes FoxP3 expression and inhibits the generation of Th1 and Th2 cells)

44

Treg cells suppress immune responses by the production of 

IL-10

45

Mutation in the IL-10 and IL-10R genes are associated with severe ____ in children

Colitis 

46

Deficiencies in what cytokines or their receptors result in pathogic bowel inflammation

  • TGF-beta
  • IL-10
  • IL-2

47

underlying mechanisms of the oral tolerance include

  • Anergy
  • Deletion
  • Treg mediated suppression

48

What antibodies are a sensitive diagnostic marker for celiac disease

  • anti-gluten IgA and IgG
  • Auto-abs for Transglutaminase 2A (enzyme that modifies the gluten protien Gliadin)

49

People who carry the tow class II HLA alleles ____ and ___ are at high risk for development fo celiac disease

HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8

50

IL-13

  • Principal cell source
    • Th2  cells
    • NKT cells
    • group 2 innate lymphoid cells
    • mast cells
  • Prinicipal functions:
    • B cells: 
      • isotype switching to IgE
    • Epithelial cells:
      • Increased mucus production
    • Fibroblasts:
      • increased collagen synthesis 
    • Macrophages:
      • Alternative activation