Cytokines and Chemokines-Monika Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cytokines and Chemokines-Monika Deck (24)
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1

TNF

enhances NADPH oxidase activity
activates inducible nitric oxide synthase

2

IL-2

Growth factor for T cells
enhances NK cell cytotoxicity
role in pCTL to CTL differentiation

3

IL-3

Hematopoiesis (imp. for myeloid & lymphoid progenitor cell development)

4

IL-4

Required to isotype switch to IgE
Down regulation of Th1 cytokine production
Down regulation of iNOS (not as effective as TGFbeta)

5

IL-5

Hematopoeisis- differentiation of eosinophils
Chemotactic for eosinophils (recruiting to tissues)
activates eosinophils

6

IL-6

stimulates secretion of C-reactive protein from hepatocytes (inflammation)

if TGF present, role in Thp -->Th17 differentiation

7

IL-7

hematopoiesis- B and T cell differentiation (bone marrow and thymus)

8

IL-10

Down regulates IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells & macrophages (down regulation of Th1 Cytokines)

Down Regulates iNOS (TGF beta more effective)

inhibitory molecule

9

IL-12

Activates NK cells to secrete IFNgamma (enhanced if IL-15 or IL-18 present)

10

IL-13

In lung - mediates allergic asthma
role in helminth infections (nematodes- round worms)

11

IL-15

(with IL-12) helps to induce NK to secret IFN

12

IL1 and TNF (synergistic)

1. inflammatory role
2. (+) macrophages to secrete CK (IL1, 6, 12, TNF) & chemokines ( IL-8 & MCP-1)
3. (+) endothelial cells--> (de novo expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) + enhanced ICAM-2 expression.

(+) endothelial cells --> secrete chemokines IL-8 AND MCP-1
4. act on hypothalamus-->fever, lower BP --> shock

13

IL-17

induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from wide range of cells (IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, G-CSF & metalloproteinases from macrophages
and other cell types)

Autoimmune disorders - if Th17 cells specific for self antigen

Chemotactic for neutrophils

Role in fungal and extracellular bacterial infections

14

IL-18

(with IL-12) helps to induce NK cells to secrete IFN

15

IL-21

Growth factor (amplification) of Th17 cells

16

IL-22

Proinflammatory -
elevated in inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis)

17

IL-23

Differentiation of Thp cells to Th17 cells in the presence of TGF & IL-6 or IL-1

Proinflammatory with 2 subunits: p19 and p40. (p40 = common to IL-12 and IL-23)

Elevated in multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease

18

IL-33

Activates mast cells

Upregulated in intestinal parasite infection

Receptors found on Th2 cells

Alarmins = molecules released upon necrosis; released by some immune cells without undergoing necrosis.
-IL-33 released when endothelial/epithelial cells undergo damage/necrosis --> triggers immunological processes following trauma/infection (e.g. mast cell activation)

Dysregulated IL-33 --> asthma, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder

19

IFN-gamma

Activates iNOS

Enhances activation of NADPH oxidase

Down regulates production of Th2 cytokines

Critical for Th0 differentiation to Th1 phenotype

(with IL-2) Promotes pCTL to CTL differentiation

Enhances expression of Class I MHC on nucleated cells

Enhances expression of Class II MHC on antigen presenting cells

20

IFN-alpha and IFN-beta

Triggers production of enzymes (e.g. 2'5'oligoadenylate synthetase) that interfere with replication of some viruses

Inhibits T cell proliferation

Increases expression of Class I MHC on nucleated cells

21

TGF-beta

Down regulation of iNOS

Differentiation of Th0 cells to a/i Tregs

In the presence of IL-6 or IL1 and IL-23 --> differentiation of Thp cells to Th17

22

Colony Stimulating Factor: GM-CSF

Hematopoiesis

Differentiation of myeloid progenitor to GM-progenitor

Mobilization and activation of dendritic cells

23

Colony Stimulating Factor: G-CSF

Hematopoiesis

Differentiation of GM progenitor to granulocyte/neutrophil

24

Colony Stimulating Factor: M-CSF

Hematopoiesis

Differentiation of GM progenitor to monocyte