Dairy Cattle Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Nutrition Final > Dairy Cattle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dairy Cattle Deck (64):
1

How many calves per year per cow is the objective

1 calf/cow per year

2

T/F: Milk is produced year round and cows are milked year round

FALSE

-Milk is produced year round
-COWS ARE MILKED 10 MONTH/YR

3

Define grazing

Animals feed on pasture and are supplemented with grain/hay during winter

-low yield animals

4

How often should cows be milked?

q12 hrs

5

Four factors of quality in milk (affects price)

1. volume
2. fat content
3. protein content
4. Somatic Cell Count

6

What percent of dairy farms are family owned

97%

7

Average size of dairy herd

179 cows

8

How much milk will a dairy cow produce on average per day

6.5 gallows (24-25 L)

9

Gestation period for dairy cattle

280 days

10

Lactation period for dairy cattle

304 days, milking begins when calf is born

11

Dry period after cow's lactation period

60 days

12

How many days after parturition is a dairy cow inseminated again?

85 days

13

What happens at the end of the dry period

Parturition

14

Female calves are kept on ____artificial/mother's_____ milk

female calves are kept on artificial milk

15

Female calves are weaned at _________ days and reared for another _____ days

Female calves are weaned at **35-45** days and reared for another **420** days

16

Why would every cow lose weight during their FIRST lactation phase?

In a negative energy balance

17

Life span of dairy cattle and profitable for how many lactations?

Life span of 20 years
profitable for 3-5 lactations

18

After the profitable lactation period, what CS will you likely see

Lameness, Mastitis, Infertility

19

A cow in lactation fed correctly will use what percent feed for maintenance and what percent feed for milk production?

50/50

20

Lactation peaks at ___ - ____ weeks

4 to 10 weeks

21

Fat and protein content _____ until week 10 and then _______

Decrease until week 10, then stabilize

22

T/F: Milk production is always limited by genetic and environmental components (25% genetic, 75% environment)

True

23

What are nutrients used for in dairy cows

-growth (immature animals)
-Pregnancy (esp last 3 months)
-Fattening
-Regaining weight lost in lactation
-Maintenance
-Lactation and milk production

24

T/F: Dairy cattle are fed only roughages (pasture, hay, silage)

False,
because milk production is very demanding, dairy cattle have to be supplemented w/ **concentrate feeding and/or grains**

25

What percent of dry matter should come from roughages (and the rest from concentrates or grain)

60-80%

26

Ideal to produce hay around:

mid-spring

27

Moisture content of hay when bailed

20% or less

28

As crops mature cows will eat ___more/less___ of the green chop

LESS
leads to lower energy intake

29

What feed type is preserved in low oxygen concentrations (anaerobic)?

Silage

Also more moisture content

30

T/F: Corn silage is NOT very palatable

false, corn silage IS very palatable

31

T/F: corn silage must be supplemented because it is low in protein and minerals

True;

8% protein
Low mineral
(also contains 50% grain in a DM basis)

32

______ is the non-grain part of crop of wheat or oats

straw

33

________ is:
-low in energy, protein, minerals, vitamins
-cows must be supplemented with concentrates
-little nutritional value
-mainly used to add fiber
-Cheap alternative for feeding dry cows and old heifers

STRAW

34

Pasture is ideal for:

dry cows and old heifers

35

Feeding pasture to lactating cows may cause:

-Decrease in milk production, milk fat, grain intake
-bloat
-flavors in milk
-watery feces after heavy rainfall
-difficulty getting cows into milking parlor

36

Limit grazing time to _____ hours a day

Limit grazing to **1 to 2 hours** per day

-feed dry forage before allowing cows on pasture
-bring cows to barn several hours before feeding, feed silage/hay at same time

37

T/F: energy content of cereals (if low) is the LIMITING FACTOR in milk production

TRUE

38

Cereal grains contain ______% TDN (total digestible nutrients)

70 to 80

39

T/F: processed grains are more digestible if rolled, ground, or pelleted

true

40

Consequences of feeding fine grains

-lower digestibility --> lower milk fat
-may lead to acidosis because digested much faster

41

_____% TDN for corn and corn cob meal

90%

42

T/F cows feed better when corn is used in rations

True

43

Compare oats to corn
-Energy content
-Protein
-Digestibility

- lower energy
- higher protein
- lower digestibility

should not replace more than half of corn in the ration

44

Barley has the same overall energy value for dairy cattle as ______ but has a ____ protein content

Corn
Higher protein content

45

T/F: Wheat is used in dairy rations because it is low in price

FALSE; high in price not used for dairy rations

46

What is the expensive part of ration

Protein supplements

Hold as low as possible to keep costs low

47

Six protein sources

1. corn gluten meal
2. distillers dried grains (DDG)
3. soybean meal
4. sunflower meal
5. linseed meal
6. cottonseed meal

48

Which protein source is most palatable

Soybean meal

49

limit corn gluten meal to ____ lbs per head/day

5 lbs

50

Which protein source has highest crude protein content

Corn Gluten (40-60%)

Cottonseed is also high

51

Which protein source is a laxative

Linseed meal

52

Which protein source may constipate

cottonseed meal

53

Too much urea is toxic, you want no more that ___ lb/head/day

0.4 lb

54

Which calcium source is no longer legal

steamed bone meal

55

Two sources of calcium

Dicalcium phosphate
limestone

56

Ca:P ratio should be

Anywhere from 1.2 : 1.0 to 1.2 : 2.1

57

Milk is ___% water

85%

58

___________ need water in relation to size more than any other farm animal

Lactating cows

59

Dairy cows suffer more from lack of _____ than from lack of any other nutrients

water

60

pH of rumen

6.5

61

Four basic groups that can survive in rumen

bacteria
protozoa
fungi
viruses

62

How is cellulose and hemicellulose digested to extract energy

Microorganisms secrete enzymes allowing digestion

63

3 VFA that can be absorbed by animal and used as energy

Acetate
Propionate
Butyrate

64

T/F: Microorganisms can convert inexpensive N sources to protein, can make their own B vitamins, and can breakdown toxins from plants

True