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Flashcards in Data-based questions Deck (36):
1

(Hummingbirds have long narrow beaks that adapt them to collecting nectar from flowers. Nectar provides energy in the form of sugar, but has very low concentrations of amino acids and protein. Therefore, hummingbirds have to supplement their diet by catching flying insects. They do this by flying with their beaks wide open towards insects. Scientists have used high-speed video to study the success rate for catching insects. The pie charts below show the results, according to which part of the beak the insect touches first.)

State the relationship between the part of the beak that insects first touch and the success rate.

The nearer to the base the insect touches, the higher the success rate.

2

(State the relationship between the part of the beak that insects first touch and the success rate.)

Suggest a reason for the relationship in (a) (i).

Difficult to manipulate insect at tip of long narrow beak;

Beak wider open near tip;

Base of beak is nearer the esophagus/throat/mouth;

More difficult to escape if insect near base / easier to hold near base.

3

(Birds that feed only on flying insects have a different shape of beak from hummingbirds.)

Predict, with a reason, the shape of beak in a species of bird that feeds only on flying insects.

shape:
short / wide
(accept “thick”);

reason:
wide beak gives greater chance of catching insect / less chance of losing it;

larger area for catching insect with wider beak;

4

Very rapid wing beats keep a hummingbird’s body steady near a flower while it collects nectar. This unusual type of flight behaviour is called hovering. Measurements were taken to investigate hovering in four hummingbird species. The body mass and maximum frequency of wing beats were measured. The velocity of the wing tips was measured when the wings were beating at their maximum frequency. The mean results are shown in the table below.

State the relationship between body mass and maximum frequency of wing beats.

Lower wing beat frequency with greater body mass /

inverse relationship /

negative correlation

5

The data in the table indicates that there is a similar maximum velocity for wing tip movement whatever the overall size of the bird.

Suggest one problem that would be caused by a velocity of wing tip movement greater
than this.

damage to wing / feathers / joints;

excessive energy requirement / muscles not strong enough;

loss of stability / harder to control hovering;

6

(Hummingbirds are the smallest birds in the world, with adult masses ranging from approximately 2g to 20g.)

Using the data in the table, suggest a reason why hummingbirds with a mass larger than
20 g have not evolved.

Wing beat frequency limited by maximum wing tip velocity (of 16 m s−1 );

Wing beat frequency would be too low for hovering;

7

Explain why the volume taken in per hour was higher at 10°C than at the higher temperatures.

rapid heat loss at lower temperatures;

energy from sugar; used to maintain constant (body) temperature.

8

Suggest one reason for the higher overall concentration of nitrogenous waste products in urine at 40 °C.

Smaller volume of water ingested (therefore smaller volume of urine / more concentrated urine);

Loss of water by panting / evaporation (therefore smaller volume of urine / more concentrated urine);

9

The ratio between the concentration of ammonia and the concentration of uric acid in the urine of hummingbirds changes as the temperature rises. The ratio at 10 °C is 4.4:1.

Calculate the ratio between the concentration of ammonia and the concentration of
uric acid at 40 °C.

1.625 : 1

(accept 1.6 : 1)

(accept 1.64 : 1)

10

The ratio between the concentration of ammonia and the concentration of uric acid in the urine of hummingbirds changes as the temperature rises. The ratio at 10 °C is 4.4:1.

Explain the difference in the relative amounts of ammonia and uric acid at 10 °C and at 40 °C.

higher ammonia concentrations (more than 7.8) would be toxic;

more ammonia converted to uric acid at higher temperatures;

less water for urine production/more water used for cooling;

11

Hummingbirds use energy at a faster rate than any other bird or mammal.

Explain two reasons for the high rate of energy use in hummingbirds.

high energy cost of hovering;

high rate of loss of body heat due to high surface area to volume ratio;

12

Compare the acidity of rain in urban and rural areas.

both moderately acidic / rural slightly more acidic /
urban slightly less acidic

13

Compare the levels of atmospheric pollution in urban and rural areas.

urban areas have overall more atmospheric pollution (or converse);

levels of each pollutant are much higher concentrations in urban areas;

14

Outline the conclusions that can be drawn about the growth of Populus deltoides from the data in the bar chart.

overall growth was greater in urban areas;

greater growth in urban areas below ground;

greater growth above ground;

above ground growth always greater than below ground growth;

15

Discuss whether the differences in growth rates of Populus deltoides between urban and rural areas could be due to differences in the acidity of rain.

Unlikely to be cause because differences in pH are small

16

Discuss whether the differences in growth rates of Populus deltoides between urban and rural areas could be due to differences in the concentration of air pollutants.

yes because higher growth in areas where there is higher pollution; No because it might be correlation rather than cause and effect;

yes because pollutant might have stimulated growth; no because pollutant did not negatively affect growth (as more pollution in urban areas/area with higher growth);

17

Compare the seasonal ozone exposures in urban, agricultural and forested areas.

lowest ozone exposures in urban areas / highest ozone exposure in rural areas;

lower ozone exposure in forested than agricultural areas;

highest range in rural areas / lowest range in forested areas;

wide range of ozone exposures in each area;

18

Using the data in the scattergraph and in previous parts of this question, suggest a hypothesis for differences in the growth of Populus deltoides between urban and rural areas. Give reasons for your hypothesis.

Less growth with higher ozone exposure;

ozone exposure is lower in urban areas;

hypothesis is that higher growth rates in urban areas are due to lower ozone exposure;

19

State the largest number of dolphins counted in a single survey.

2200

20

Calculate the mean number of dolphins counted per survey for the winter season.

800

21

Compare the data for the dolphin populations in winter and summer.

more surveys in summer / fewer in winter;

larger average/biggest number sighted (per survey) in winter / converse;

larger total number of dolphins (from adding up all surveys) in summer;

22

Compare the distribution of dolphins in summer and winter.

more evenly distributed in summer than in winter;

more dolphins near Cape Hatteras in winter than in summer;

23

Suggest one reason for the differences in distribution.

dolphins migrate to find food/prey/warmer water/mates;

24

Outline the relationship between body mass and LCTw for male dolphins.

male dolphin with the lowest body mass has the highest LCTw;

with dolphins above 180kg no change in LCTw with body mass;

LCTw drops as mass increases;

25

Suggest one reason for the high LCTw measured for the female dolphin.

higher surface area to volume ratio (than male);

26

Evaluate the hypothesis that water temperature determines the range and distribution of bottlenose dolphins in the wild.

supported as water temperature affects metabolic rate;

data may not be reliable since the study was conducted in captivity;

27

Explain how an increase in water temperature due to global warming could affect the distribution of bottlenose dolphins along the eastern coast of the USA.

dolphins may migrate; to area with cooler/suitable water temperature;

most productive waters/food supply may be further north;

28

Suggest how research into the range and distribution of bottlenose dolphins could benefit
from international cooperation.

increase the amount of data.

29

State the relative time the Australian fur seal spent diving while at sea.

42%

30

Using the data in the bar chart, deduce which factor has the most significant effect on the relative time spent diving while at sea.

all epipelagic species spend less time diving ;

thus foraging behavior/feeding location affects diving time more than species;

31

State the oxygen stores for a New Zealand sea lion for a dive of 3.4 minutes.

46 (cm3 kg–1)

32

Using the data in the graph, analyse the correlation between dive duration and oxygen stores in the different species.

benthic species dive for longer than epipelagic species;

the longer the dive, the greater the oxygen stores;

33

Describe the variations in the:

(i) characteristics of each successive dive during the period investigated.

(ii) difference between the temperature of the skin and the water during the period investigated.

(i) the depth of the dives decreases over time; whilst the length/duration of the dive increases over time;

(ii) temperature difference decreases over time;
but in a variable, regular fashion;

34

Explain two mechanisms or adaptations used in mammals to maintain a constant body temperature in cold environments that could be used by pinnipeds.

hypothalamus control with thermoreceptors/hormones to increase/decrease metabolism;

shivering to generate heat

35

Suggest reasons for the observed changes occurring in temperature difference between
skin and water during the dives in the sea.

difference decreases in each dive with depth as skin temperature decreases;

there is heat loss from skin to water;

vasoconstriction may reduce blood flow to the skin and thus reduce skin temperature;

36

Using the data, discuss reasons for pinnipeds diving for less than 3.5 minutes.

oxygen reserves used up after 3.5 minutes;

need to remain on surface to raise body temperature;

pinnipeds already caught prey by 3.5 minutes;