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Flashcards in Ecology and Neurology Deck (60):

How does the precautionary principle affect planning of public projects?

A. Supporters of any project must prove that it will not cause harm
B. Opponents of any project must prove that it will cause harm
C. Precautions must be taken to prevent harm to biodiversity during construction of the project
D. Precautions must be taken to prevent harm to biodiversity after construction of the project



Where would an Action Potential occur in a motor neuron?



Consider the food chain below:

Oak leaf -> Oak beauty moth caterpillar -> Ground beetle -> Shrew -> Fox

Which term best describes the ground beetle?

A. Autotroph, Secondary Consumer
B. Autotroph, Tertiary Consumer
C. Heterotroph, Secondary Consumer
D. Heterotroph, Tertiary Consumer



Which expected effect of temperature increase on arctic ecosystems will increase carbon dioxide in atmosphere?

A. Greater production of plants due to warmer temperatures and changing vegetation
B. Greater decomposition of organic matter currently stored in permafrost
C. Less ice and snow will cause incoming radiation to be absorbed more readily
D. Melting ice from glaciers and icebergs will cause sea levels to rise



What is the function of neurotransmitters?

A. To stimulate the axon of a neuron
B. To destroy hormones in a post-synaptic membrane
C. To diffuse across the synapse and affect the permeability of a neuron
D. To block calcium uptake in a pre-synaptic axon



Which letter indicates the time when the sodium-potassium pump re-establishes the resting state?



A victim of an accident can feel a stimulus to the toes but cannot move them. Which of the indicated cuts could be causing the damage?

A. I only (near skin)
B. I and II (near skin and spinal chord)
C. I and III (near skin and effector
D. III (near effector)



Study the diagram of the simplified feedback mechanism below.

I stimulates II causes III changes I

What combination would correctly show a simple feedback mechanism for temperature regulation?

A. Low blood temp; hypothalamus; erection of hair and shivering
B. High blood temp; hypothalamus; construction of skin arterioles
C. High blood temp; pituitary gland; erection of hair and shivering
D. Low blood temp; pituitary gland; dilation of skin arterioles



Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of a motor neuron.



Explain how nerve impulses pass from one neuron to another neuron.

- AP depolarises pre-synaptic membrane -> Ca channels to open -> Ca2+ ions to diffuse into pre-synaptic neuron
- Synaptic vesicles containing NT fuse with pre-synaptic membrane -> release NT by exocytosis
- NT diffuses across synaptic cleft & binds to receptor in post-synaptic membrane -> Na channels open -> Na+ ions enter post-synaptic neuron -> AP in post-synaptic neuron.
- NT broken down by enzymes and re absorbed back into pre-synaptic neuron.


Draw a labelled diagram of the carbon cycle



The diagram shows a simplified Lake Michigan food web. Which pair of terms describes the tropic level of lake trout?

A. Secondary Consumer; Herbivore
B. Tertiary Consumer; Detritivore
C. Secondary Consumer; Tertiary Consumer
D. Secondary Consumer; Primary Consumer



What is the trophic level of the Leopard seal?

I. Secondary consumer
II. Tertiary consumer
III. Quaternary consumer

A. II only
B. III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III



In ecology, how is community defined?

A. Different species living and interacting with each other in a specific area.
B. Different families cooperating with each other.
C. A group of organisms of the same species who live in a specific area at the same time.
D. A specific area in which a group of species normally live.



The image shows a diagram of a motor neuron.

Which structure is correctly labelled in the diagram?
A. Cell body
B. Axon
C. Dendrite
D. Node of Ranvier



Explain how the following influence the enhanced greenhouse effect.
(i) Reforestation of desert

(ii) Change in energy source from fossil fuel to solar energy

(iii) Increase in the production of methane

(i) Decreases concentration of CO2, which lowers greenhouse gas effect as trees absorb CO2 for photosynthesis.

(ii) Solar energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions as fossil fuels not burned, lowering effect.

(iii) CH4 is a greenhouse gas and so increasing production increases greenhouse effect.


State two processes that could increase population size.

Increase in Birth Rate

Decrease in Death Rate


Outline how the scouts communicate the location of new food sources to the non-scouts.

Using the waggle dance, they can indicate distance of food source by changing intensity of dance.


State what the ratio of 1.00 means.

Expression of gene in scouts = expression of gene in non-scouts.


State which gene shows the highest expression in the scouts compared to the non-scouts.



Calculate the increase in the probability of scouting behaviour of non-scouts fed with
GLT (glutamate) and OA (octopamine).

GLT: 0.05

OA: 0.02


List the sequence of the components of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex.

Receptor cell (e.g thermoreceptor) --> Sensory Neuron --> Relay Neuron --> Motor Neuron --> Effector Neuron (e.g muscle)


Label the blind spot and the aqueous humour on the diagram of the eye.

Aqueous humour on the top (tree-looking thing) and blind spot at the bottom (simply point into tube leading out of eye).


Outline how endorphins act as pain killers.

Endorphins block transmissions of impulses at synapses involved in pain perception.


Design an experiment on a named invertebrate to investigate kinesis or taxis.


- Kinesis is degree of movement in no particular direction. Orthokinesis is the speed of movement (DV) in response to a stimulus (Temperature, IV). Orthokinesis is measured for wood lice.
- Temperature of testing chamber is adjusted and behaviour of individuals is measured:
- Floor of chamber has grid.
- Movement is video recorded for a given time (controlled variable).
- Video played back, with number of squares crossed counted as movement (DV) in time period.
- Orthokinetic value calculated as number of squares crossed per second (mean of 6 runs).


In ecosystems the amount of energy that passes from one trophic level to the next is called the conversion efficiency. What is the average conversion efficiency from primary to secondary consumers in most ecosystems?

A. 1%
B. 10%
C. 50%
D. 90%



Global warming caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to have major consequences for arctic ecosystems. Which of the following are likely to occur in the arctic if the Earth’s surface temperature rises?

I. Decreased rates of decomposition of detritus
II. Increased range of predators from temperate regions
III. Increase in numbers of pest species and pathogens

A. I and II only
B. I and III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III



Immediately after an action potential, which event causes the neuron membrane to repolarize?

A. Voltage-gated sodium channels open.
B. Voltage-gated potassium channels open.
C. Voltage-gated calcium channels close.
D. Voltage-gated potassium channels close.



What would you expect to find in the fossil record if evolution had not occurred?

A. Fossils of simple organisms only in the oldest layers
B. Only fossils of extinct forms
C. Fossils of complex organisms only in the oldest layers
D. Same fossil forms in all layers



What initiates an action potential along a neuron?

A. Potassium and sodium ions diffuse out of a neuron.
B. Potassium and sodium ions diffuse into a neuron.
C. Neurotransmitters cause depolarization of membrane.
D. Acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine.



Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

Autotrophs make their own food and require inorganic molecules, whereas heterotrophs feed on other organisms and require organic molecules.


Define saprotroph.

Organism that lives on non-living organic matter and secretes digestive enzymes to break down organic matter.


Ecologists sometimes display data from an ecosystem using a diagram called a pyramid of energy. Describe what is shown in pyramids of energy.

Pyramid of energy shows flow of energy from one trophic level to the next; units are energy per unit are per unit time (like kJm-2yr-1); bar width proportional to energy stored in that trophic level. First trophic level = Producers
Second = Primary Consumers
Third = Secondary consumers and so on...
Only 10% of energy passed from one level to the next.


What is a population?

A. Organisms of the same genus living in an ecosystem
B. Organisms living together and interacting in the same habitat
C. Organisms of a species living together in the same area
D. Organisms that can breed together



The following shows an energy pyramid.

How is energy lost between the trophic levels?

A. photosynthesis, birth of an organism and digestion
B. respiration, death of an organism and egestion
C. recycling of nutrients, death of an organism and egestion
D. respiration, birth of an organism and digestion



What are examples of greenhouse gases?

A. Ethane and ozone
B. Methane and nitrogen
C. Methane and carbon dioxide
D. Ethane and oxygen



The diagram below shows the changes in membrane potential during an action potential.
What best describes events indicated by the label X?

A. sodium ions diffuse out of the neuron
the inside of the neuron becomes more negative

B. potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron
the inside of the neuron becomes more negative

C. potassium ions diffuse into the neuron
the inside of the neuron becomes more positive

D. sodium ions diffuse into the neuron
the inside of the neuron becomes more positive



Distinguish between the movement of energy and nutrients in an ecosystem.

Energy moves through ecosystems and so a constant source of energy is required; nutrients cycle between biotic and abiotic environments.


Membranes of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons play an important role in transmission of nerve impulses. Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.

Synapse is gap between adjacent neurons. Action potential depolarizes pre-synaptic neutron; which opens voltage-gated Ca channels in membrane; which causes an influx of Ca2+ ions. This causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with pre-synaptic membrane and release neurotransmitter (via exocytosis) into synaptic cleft; which diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane. This causes Na/K channels to open, allowing Na+/K+ to diffuse, which initiates action potential in post-synaptic membrane. Neurotransmitter then breaks down to stop its effect on post-synaptic membrane.


In a pond, two species of fish feed on insects and worms. The insects feed on the green plants that live in the water. What constitutes a population in this ecosystem?

A. All the living organisms
B. All the animals
C. All the fish
D. All the fish of one species



The fungus Calocera viscosa obtains its nutrients from decaying conifer trees.
Which pair of terms describes C. viscosa’s nutrition?
A. autotrop; herbivore
B. autotroph; saprotroph
C. heterotroph; herbivore
D. heterotroph; saprotroph



What is an example of the precautionary principle?

A. Avoiding cigarettes as they increase the chances of lung cancer
B. Reducing carbon dioxide emissions as they may cause global warming
C. Avoiding strong sunlight as it increases the chances of skin cancer
D. Reducing cod fishing to increase fish stocks



In a population of rabbits studied over a period of six months, it was found that natality was greater than mortality and emigration was greater than immigration. What can be concluded about the final population of rabbits?

A. It will have increased.
B. It will have decreased.
C. It will be exactly the same.
D. There is not enough information to make a valid conclusion.



What is a characteristic of axons in motor neurons?

A. When there is a resting potential, the outside of the axon is negative relative to the inside.
B. During an action potential, Na+ ions diffuse out of the axon.
C. K+ ions diffusing out of the axon repolarizes it.
D. Impulses in the axon travel towards the cell body.



What best describes the mode of nutrition of a heterotroph?

A. It ingests only non-living organic matter.
B. It obtains organic molecules from other organisms.
C. It synthesizes its organic molecules from inorganic substances.
D. It produces its organic molecules from chemical reactions using light.



The energy passing from the detritivores to the predatory invertebrates in this food web is 14 000 kJ m–2 year–1. Approximately how much energy (in kJ m–2 year–1) passes from the predatory invertebrates to the carnivores?

A. 140
B. 1400
C. 14,000
D. 140,000



To which trophic level do the butterflies belong?

A. Producers
B. Primary consumers
C. Secondary consumers
D. Tertiary consumers



Which of the following are controlled by homeostasis?

I. Blood pH
II. Water balance
III. Blood glucose concentration

A. I and II only
B. I and III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III



Which of the following help to control body temperature on a very hot day?

I. Shivering
II. Sweating
III. Skin arteriole dilation

A. I and II only
B. I and III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III



State the largest number of dolphins counted in a single survey.



Calculate the mean number of dolphins counted per survey for the winter season.



Compare the data for the dolphin populations in winter and summer.

More surveys in the summer than in the winter;
Larger total number of dolphins in summer than in winter.


Compare the distribution of dolphins in summer and winter.

More evenly distributed in summer than in winter; many near Cape Hatteras at 35.2ºN in winter, but not as many in summer.


Suggest one reason for the differences in distribution.

Migration to find food in warmer water.


Outline the relationship between body mass and LCTw for male dolphins.

There is no significant change in LCTw with dolphins of a body mass of >180kg; weak negative correlation.


Suggest one reason for the high LCTw measured for the female dolphin.

Female dolphin is the oldest and so has a lower metabolic rate.


Evaluate the hypothesis that water temperature determines the range and distribution of bottlenose dolphins in the wild.

Supported as water temperature affects metabolic rate; but data may be unreliable since study was conducted in captivity.


Explain how an increase in water temperature due to global warming could affect the distribution of bottlenose dolphins along the eastern coast of the USA.

Dolphins may migrate further north where area is cooler and where food supply is likely to be greater.


Suggest how research into the range and distribution of bottlenose dolphins could benefit from international cooperation.

Amount of data would increase, which would allow comparisons between countries to be made.


Describe the consequences of overpopulation of a species.

Members of a species tend to produce more offspring than can survive and so competition for available resources occurs;
Food web may be interrupted as a result;
May promote natural selection of successful variations of the species, which cause species to evolve with new characteristics;
Eventually, mortality will exceed natality and so reduce population numbers.
Disease may also spread faster and so help increase mortality further.