Flashcards in Option Questions Deck (49):
Using the evidence provided by the data evaluate the hypothesis that the mean rate of food collection increases during the twelve days after the start of foraging on Day 1
- General increase in food collection over 12-day period.
- Large increase between days 1-2, 6-7 and 10-11.
- Most food collected was on day 7
- Declines between 3-5, 8-10 and a large decrease from day 7-8
Suggest reasons for the day to day rises and falls in the mean rate of food collection.
- Variations in temperature and/or wind speed
- Flowers produce more nectar in some days than others.
Explain how sound is perceived in the ear.
- Sound waves in air cause ear drum to vibrate
- Vibrations are amplified by middle ear bones
- Causes oval window in cochlea to vibrate
- This stimulates cilia hair cells in cochlea
- Cilia hair cells convert vibrations into nerve impulses that are then passed to the brain via optic nerve.
State two differences in the way rod and come cells function.
Function well in dim light
Not responsible for colour vision
Poor visual acuity
Function well in bright light
Responsible for colour vision
Good visual acuity
Explain the pupil reflex in bright light.
- Light detected by cones and rods in retina
- Sensory impulses sent to brain along optic nerve
- Medulla oblongata processes impulses
- Motor impulses sent to circular muscles of iris which constrict and so pupil constricts.
Outline the development of birdsong.
- Development of bird song has both innate and learned components
- When birds hatch, they may possess a basic song (crude template) that is species-specific
- After hatching, young birds hear songs from adults of their species and modify their crude template to mimic adult members.
- Song does not develop properly if young bird doesn't hear other members of species sing
- Young birds practise what they have heard, which improves song to form mature song.
Calculate how much time it took the ant to find the food after leaving the nest, giving the units.
Estimate how far the ant travelled to the nest after finding the food, giving the units.
Compare the ant's journey from the nest to the food with the return journey to the nest.
Ant travelled FURTHER and for a longer period of TIME from nest to food than from food to nest.
Suggest how the ant knew the direction to return to the nest after finding the food.
Suggest how the other ants in the colony were able to quickly find the same source of food.
Ant communicated with other ants using touch or smell for example.
State one advantage to an insect of living in a colony
Division of labour due to large number of insects.
Label the bipolar neuron on the diagram
(Middle area of image)
Using an arrow, annotate the diagram to show direction in which light moves
Outline the role of the following structures in perceiving sound.
(I) Bones of the middle ear
(II) Hair cells of cochlea
(I) Amplify sound waves
(II) Convert sound waves to nerve impulses
Distinguish between innate behaviour and learned behaviour using birdsong in young birds as an example.
- Innate behaviour present at birth, whilst learned behaviour occurs after birth through experiences.
- Young birds born with crude template of species-specific song (innate)
- Birds refine crude template from listening to adult members of species (learned)
Discuss how experiments can be carried out to identify specific functions of parts of the brain.
- Observe abnormal behaviour from patients with a lesion to specific part of brain, which allows links to be made between part of brain injured and abnormal behaviour.
E.g. Damage to occipital lobes affects patients's vision
- Neuroimaging tools like fMRI measure blood flow in parts of brain during certain activities, meaning that patients do not have to be injured (can be healthy).
- Experiments on animals are unethical and almost never carried out on humans (which is also unethical). What applies to animals may not apply to humans... And ethical violations.
State the difference in mean rate of food collection on Day 7 compared with Day 6, giving the units.
Identify the season and light conditions which result in the strongest northerly direction flown by the robins.
Light conditions: Green light
Distinguish between the effect of red light and green light on the behaviour of the robins in spring and autumn.
In green light, birds migrate north in spring but south in autumn; whereas in red light, birds migrate west in both spring and autumn.
Based on the results of these experiments, suggest one possible conclusion that could be drawn regarding the effect of red light on the behaviour of robins.
Red light has almost same effect as total darkness.
Using the data in the diagram, deduce with a reason, whether European robins migrate during the daytime or at night.
Daytime, as wrong orientation in darkness.
Scientists anesthetized the beaks of some robins in order to deactivate the magnetoreceptors. Predict how this would affect their orientation in red light.
No effect, orientation could actually become even more random.
Outline how the pupil reflex can be used to indicate brain death.
Pupil normally contracts when light is shone on it. If pupil does not contract, then it suggests a lack of motor response and hence, no brain processing taking place.
Discuss the evolution of altruistic behaviour in animals other than humans.
Altruistic behaviour benefits other individuals and may be harmful to self. This decreases survival of a species but not individuals. Natural selection works at level of gene pools and so it would be expected that natural selection would work against behaviour that reduces chance of survival. Uniquely, vampire bats show altruistic behaviour towards unrelated individuals by sharing regurgitated blood with another colony member who hasn't been fed. It is difficult to explain this behaviour but it is likely because vampire bats benefit as a colony from this.
Calculate the decrease in mass of food foraged by fed sand gobies when a predator was introduced, giving the units.
Compare the effect that starvation had on both species of goby when no predator was present.
Both foraged more after starvation; black goby increased amount of food foraged more than sand goby.
Describe the effect the predator had on the foraging of the gobies.
Predator present causes both species to forage for less food; fed black gobies showed little change in foraging with predator present.
Suggest a reason for the effect of the predator.
Gobbies may hide rather than forage when predator present.
The diagram shows the structure of the human ear.
Label structures I and II.
II: Ear drum
Outline how sounds are perceived in the cochlea, including the name of the cell type involved.
Cilia hair cells vibrate with cochlear fluid movement to convert sound waves into nerve impulses.
Outline how contralateral processing of visual stimuli occurs in the human eye.
Optic nerves from right eye and left eye meet at chiasma; right brain hemisphere processes information from left visual field from both eyes and vice versa. This allows the brain to perceive depth and size.
Identify a function of the parts of the brain by using numerals II to V to complete the chart.
Hypothalamus has been completed for you.
Medulla Oblongata Controls Breathing
Cerebellum Coordinates Balance
Pituitary Gland Secretes hormones regulating body functions
Cerebral Hemispheres Memory Centre
Explain the effects of cocaine on the brain.
Cocaine is an excitatory drug that affects synapses that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine affects reward and pleasure pathways in brain. Dopamine molecules are released into synapse and they attach to receptors of post-synaptic membrane. Dopamine is then taken up again by pre-synaptic membrane. Cocaine prevents re-absorption of dopamine by pre-synaptic neuron and causes dopamine to build up un synaptic cleft and so it continues to stimulate post-synaptic neuron, meaning that pleasure effects continue.
Identify which stage of cocaine use shows the least percentage difference between identical twins and non-identical twins.
Compare the results for identical twins and non-identical twins.
Both show lower %'s going from occasional to abuse to dependence; % is higher at every stage for identical twins; non-identical twins % drops to 0 for dependence, but identical twins doesn't.
Analyse the data to find whether it supports the hypothesis that genetic factors cause some people to have a much higher chance of cocaine dependence than others.
Supports: Identical twins more likely to behave the same way for abuse and dependence than non-identical twins.
Doesn't Support: Environment is major factor for trying cocaine; not enough data for valid statistical analysis either.
State the diagnostic tool used for functional analysis in the images.
Using the table below, distinguish between rod cells and cone cells.
Rod cells Cone cells
Light intensity detected
Connection to optic nerve
Characteristic Rod cells Cone cells
Location Retina Fovea
Light intensity detected Dim Bright
Connection to optic nerve Group of rod cells Single cell
to single fibre to single fibre
Outline the challenges in controlling experiments involving human behaviour.
Variations between humans
Ethical and legal considerations
Explain what is meant by exaggerated traits and how they may develop in males of a species.
Exaggerated traits play a major role in mate selection; but can be a hindrance to survival. Male birds of paradise have courtship rituals that are becoming more and more flamboyant, along with exaggerated physical features and bright colours to attract females. Development of these traits represents expenditure of time and energy, but also reproductive fitness; and so is more likely to mate and produce offspring. Traits are also genetic and so passed on to offspring.
State the lowest head circumference measured in newborn babies born to high cocaine users, giving the units.
State the relationship between birth weight and head circumference in newborn babies whose mothers did not use cocaine.
Babies with higher birth weight have larger head circumference.
Using the data in the graph, describe the relationship between cocaine exposure and head circumference in newborn babies.
Head circumference decreases in babies exposed to high levels of cocaine;
Smallest head circumference from high cocaine group and largest head circumference from no cocaine group.
Deduce the effect of cocaine use on the head circumference of babies with a birth weight below 3.5 kg.
It is likely that head circumference will be smaller; but there is no proof that there is a cause and effect, only that there is a correlation, making predictions.
Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour.
Innate behaviour is independent of experience whilst learned behaviour is influenced by experience.
State the name of the part of the brain that coordinates balance.
Label the diagram of the ear.
III: Auditory Nerve
IV: Semicircular Canals