Flashcards in deck_504426 Deck (36)
Give the free ion distribution of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl- inside the cell
Na+ - 10mMK+ - 160mMCa2+ - 1 x 10^-4mMCl- - 3 mM
Give the free ion distribution of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl- outside of the cell
Na+ - 145 mMK+ - 4.5mMCa2+ - 1.5mMCl- - 114 mM
Describe the process of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump
* Exchanges 3 intracellular Na+ for extracellular 2K+* Creates high intracellular K+ * Antiport protein
What does the Na+/K+-ATPase pump drive?
Processes of secondary active transport via formation of Na+ concentration gradient
Why must levels of Ca2+ in cells be controlled?
High Ca2+ toxic to cells
What is SERCA? Describe its process (4)
* Antiport protein * High affinity low capacity for Ca2+ * Accumulates Ca2+ into the Sarcoplasmic reticulum/Endoplasmic Reticulum in exchange for H+ * Primary active transport: ATP hydrolysis
What is PMCA?
* Antiport protein * High affinity, low capacity for Ca2+ * Intracellular Ca2+ exchanged for extracellular H+ (expels Ca2+) * Primary active transport: ATP hydrolysis
What type of active transport is demonstrated by NCX? What is its normal role?
* Secondary active transport* Expelling Ca2+ during cell recovery
What is the process of transport for NCX?
* 3 Na+ into cell, 1 Ca2+ out of cell* Electrogenic - current flows in direction of Na+ gradient
What is NCX dependent on?
What happens to NCX in depolarised cells?
The normal mode of operation is inhibited and reversed, so Ca2+ enters cell.
What role does NCX have in ischaemia?
1. ATP depleted due to lack of O22. Sodium pump inhibited – no movement of Na+ out of cell3. NCX reverses, as outside negative: Ca2+ in, 3 Na+ out4. High Ca2+ toxic to cell – activates potent enzymes
What is the process of NHE cotransporter?
*Na+ in, H+ out* Gradient follows Na+ - no ATP hydrolysis
What does the NHE contransporter regulate?
o Cell volume i.e. cell swelling: increase ion efflux – water follows by osmosis, cell shrinkage: increase ion uptakeo pH
What is the NHE cotransporter activated and inhibited by?
* Activated by growth factors/ inhibited by amiloride
What is NBC?
* Na+ and HCO3- into cell, Cl- out* Gradient follows Na+
What occurs in cell when buffering exceeded?
Control of cellular pH is given to variety of plasma membrane transporters
What is acidification of a cell opposed by?
* Expelling H+ via the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHC) or the inward movement of bicarbonate via NBC.
What is alkalisation of a cell opposed by?
* Expelling bicarbonate via the anion exchanger* HCO3- out, Cl- in
What is AE?
Anion exchangeHCO3- out, Cl- in.
Why are electroneutral transport ions used to mediate osmotic strength of cytoplasm?
Allows osmotic strength to be varied without effect on membrane potential
What do cells do in response to swelling? What happens in shrinkage?
Extrude ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) Influx ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) Water follows ions down osmotic gradients
Give three ways cell swelling can be resisted
Conductive transportersContransport systemsSolute molecules exprelled
Why is all bicarbonate filtered into proximal tubule of the kidney reabsorbed?
Retains base for pH buffers
what is the main enzyme involved in bicarbonate reabsorption?
Carbonic anhydrase, which breaks down carbonic acid to H20 and CO2.
Write out bicarbonate reabsorption process
What is often the first line of treatment for mild hypertension?
Renal control of circulating Na+ concentration
What are the two transporters involved in the thick ascending limb, between the proximal tube lumen and the epithelial cells
What does NKCC2 do in the kidney?
Transfers Na+, K+ and 2Cl- into epithelial cells of proximal tubule
What does ROMK do?
Absorbs K+ from epithelial cells of proximal tube into lumen
What are the three transporters found between kidney epithelial cells and capillaries of thick ascending limb?
KCICT, CIC - Kb, Na pump
What does KCICT pump?
K+ and Cl- from epithelial cells to capillaries
What does CIC - Kb pump?
Cl - into capillary from epithelial cells
What does the Na pump do?
Sodium potassium pump, 3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in
What drug can be used to inhibit reabsorption of Na+ from proximal tube of kidney in thick ascending limb?
Loop diuretic, inhibits NKCC2