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Flashcards in deck_637867 Deck (13)

What do cells require in order to respond to extracellular signalling molecules?



What are three types of receptors?

- Ligand-gated ion channel (nicotinic acetylcholine)- Receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity (insulin receptors)- G protein coupled receptors (muscarinic acetylcholine receptors)


What is the function of g protein coupled receptors?

* Muscle contraction* Stimulus-secretion coupling* Catabolic and anabolic processes* Light, taste and smell perception


What is the structure of a g protein coupled receptor?

* Heterotrimeric alpha, beta and gamma subunits* Beta and gamma bind together and function as a single subunit


How do g protein coupled receptors work?

1. The alpha subunit has a guanine nucleotide binding site which binds GTP and slowly hydrolyses it to GDP2. Receptor activation leads to GDP being released from the alpha-subunit and GTP binding in its place3. Binding of GTP decreases the affinity of the alpha subunit for the receptor and the beta-gamma subunit4. Both the alpha and the beta-gamma subunits are released and can interact with effectors5. Effector interaction is terminated by the intrinsic GTPase activity of the alpha subunit > GTP hydrolysed to GDP6. Affinity of the alpha sub-unity for the beta-gamma subunit increases7. The alpha-beta-gamma subunit is reformed and awaits reactivation by an agonist-activated receptor to re-initiate the cycle


What effect does the pertussis toxin have on g-protein coupled receptors?

* Contains an enzyme which chemically modifies and inactivates Gi type proteins – thus uncoupling the receptor-effector linkage


What effect does the cholera toxin have on g-protein coupled receptors?

* Contains a similar enzyme activity which modifies Gs type proteins* Leads to irreversible activation – heterotrimeric unit is not reformed


What is adenylyl cyclase?

* An integral plasma protein which can either be activated by Gs or inhibited by Gi via the activation of different receptors


Give an example of a situation in which adenylyl cyclase is activated?

By noradrenaline at beta-adrenoreceptors


Give an example of when adenylyl cyclase receptors are inhibited?

At alpha 2-adrenoreceptors


What does adenylyl cyclase do in cells?

1. The enzyme hydrolyses cellular ATP to generate cAMP2. cAMP then interacts with protein kinase A3. PKA then phosphorylates a variety of other proteins within the cells to affect (either positively or negatively) their activities


What does increased cAMP cause in cells?

* Increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver* Increased lipolysis in adipose tissue* Relaxation of a variety of types of smooth muscle* Postive inotropic and chronotropic effects in the heart


What is phospholipase C?

* The effector enzyme in the signalling pathway involving the hydrolysis of PIP2 to InsP3 and DAG