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Flashcards in deck_666162 Deck (44)

Define ligand

A target which binds to a receptor and causes a response


Define affinity

The degree to which a receptor binds to a ligand


Define efficacy

The ability of a ligand to activate a receptor


Define agonist

Drugs that bind to a receptor and cause a response -- have affinity and efficacy


Define antagonists

Drugs that bind to a receptor but do not cause a response-- have only affinity and NO efficacy -- block the effects of agonists


What is binding determined by?



What is activation governed by?



How many receptors does a cell have?

10,000 to 100,000 per cell


Hw can you get information regarding binding of drugs?

Use a radioligand (radioactive version of the ligand)


What is Bmax?

The maximum binding capacity-- gives information regarding the number of receptors


What is Kd?

The dissociation constant-- is a measure of affinity-- the concentration of a ligand required to occupy 50% of the available receptorsThe lower the value, the higher the affinity


Define concentration

Th known concentration of drug at site of actionI.e. in cells or tissues


Define dose

The concentration of a drug at the site of action is unknown E.g. Th dose that you give to a patient related to their weight


What law does binding obey?

Th law of mass action-- it is related to the concentrations of the products and the reactants (dynamic equilibrium)


Define potency

A combination of affinity and efficacy-- governed by the number of receptors -- a measure of the drug needed to produce a biological response


What are agonists?

Drugs that mimic endogenous ligands


Way are antagonists?

Drugs that block endogenous ligands


What is critical in determining drug action?

The concentration of drug molecules around the receptors


What determines the amount of receptors bound to receptors?

Concentration of the ligand


What effect will a drug which has good potency have on the EC50 and dose size?

Good potency = low EC50 = smaller dose needed


What effect will a drug which has bad potency have on the EC50 and dose size?

Bad potency = high EC50 = larger dose needed


What is functional antagonism?

Separate pathways mediate contraction and relaxationE.g. Bronchi constriction and bronchodilation


How do side-effects of drugs come about?

Drugs can interact with adrenoceptors which are present in other areas of the body. E.g. Asthma drugs target B-adrenoceptors which are also present in the heart, causing the heart rate to increase


Define spare receptors

Receptor numbers greater than needed to generate a maximum response


Why are spare receptors beneficial?

They increase the sensitivity so allow responses to be generated when there is a low concentration of an agonist


What can a cell do in order to change the agonist the degree of a response?

It can up-regulate or down-regulate in order to change the potency, affecting the maximal response


What stimulates changes in receptor numbers expressed on a cell?

Up-regulation is in response to low activity to increase sensitivityDown-regulation is in response to high activity to decrease sensitivity


What are partial agonists?

Drugs which cannot produce a maximal effect even when they have a full receptor capacity EC50 = Kd


Describe the potency of partial agonists in comparison to full agonists

Partial agonists can be more or less potent than full agonists


What is a particularly useful characteristic of partial agonists?

They can act as an antagonist against a full agonistE.g. Buprenorphine antagonises morphine


Describe a clinical use of a partial agonist

Buprenorpnine acts as an antagonist against morphine so it is used to enable gradual withdrawal. It also prevents the use of other illicit opioids


What kind of symptoms tend to occur in withdrawal syndromes?

The opposite effects of the acute drug effectsE.g. Pain --> lots of painEuphoria --> depression


What can facilitate the change of a partial agonist to a full agonist?

Increasing the receptor number


What indicates intrinsic activity?

A maximal response


What are the efficacy differences between partial and full agonists?

Partial agonists have a lower efficacy than full agonists


Describe reversible competitive antagonism

Commonest and most important in therapeutics-- antagonist competes with agonist for receptor sites-- relies on dynamic equilibrium between ligands and receptors-- inhibition is surmountable by addition of more agonist


What is the index of antagonist potency (IC50)?

The concentration of antagonist which give 50% inhibition -- it is determined by the strength of [agonist]


What occurs in the graph showing reversible competitive antagonists?

There is a parallel shift to the right -- curve shape stays the same just moves along and antagonist can be overcome


Give an example of a reversible competitive antagonists used clinically and why is it used?

Naloxone -- high affinity, competitive antagonist and u-opioid receptorsCauses reversal of opioid mediated respiratory depression-- as it is high affinity, it outcompetes heroin for receptors


Describe irreversible competitive antagonists

The antagonist only dissociates slowly or not at all (due to covalent bond between ligand and receptor) -- over time/increased amount of antagonist, more receptors will be blocked Is INSURMOUNTABLE


What happens to the curve when you increase the concentration of the antagonist?

The curve is shifted to the right as the concentration of the antagonist is increased. Eventually, the curve will decrease signifying the suppression of the maximal response as the antagonist blocks the receptors. It does not drop initially as the spare receptors are being filled.


Give an example of an irreversible competitive antagonist

Phenoxybenzamine -- irreversible competitive alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker-- used to treat hypertension in pheochromocytoma -- blocks release of adrenaline which lowers rate of vasoconstriction


Describe non-competitive antagonism

Tends to bind to allosteric event (site other than the site where the natural ligand bind) -- provide novel drug target (may enhance selectivity)-- can act as an agonist or an antagonist -- do not compete for orthosteric site so are non-competitive


What effects are similar to non-competitive antagonists?

Similar to irreversible competitive antagonists-- can distinguish using specific tests