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Flashcards in Definitions Deck (131)
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1

Abscess

Localised form of acute purulent inflammation forming a pus filled cavity.

2

Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumor of glandular epithelium.

3

Adenoma

Benign tumor of glandular epithelium.

4

Adhesion

Abnormal band of connective tissue fixing serosal membranes to each other.

5

Agenesis

Failure of an organ to form during embryogenesis.

6

Amyloidosis

Abnormal accumulation of specific extracellular proteins causing hardening, enlargement and malfunction of the involved organ.

7

Anaplasia

Lack of differentiation in malignant tumor.

8

Aneurysm

Abnormal permanent dilatation of a blood vessel or part of a heart chamber.

9

Aplasia

Failure of growth of a tissue.

10

Apoptosis

Programmet cell death, occuring in normal or pathological individual cells.

11

Arteriosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries caused by any condition.

12

Arteritis

Inflammation primarily within the wall of arteries.

13

Ascites

Transudate in peritoneal cavity.

14

Atelectasis

Failure of alveolar expand, resulting firm consistency (increased lung volume).

15

Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries caused by lipid accumulation in the intima.

16

Atresia

Embryological failure of lumen formation in normally hollow organs or ducts.

17

Atrophy

Pathological or physiological cellular or organ shrinkage.

18

Atypia

Change of normal cellular appearance due to reactive or mainly neoplastic processes.

19

Autolysis

Digestion of tissue by enzymes contained within it.

20

Balanitis

Inflammation of the glans.

21

Biopsy

The process of removing a part or cells from tissues (anything but fluid) from patients for diagnostic purposes.

22

Blastoma

Undifferentiated emmbryonal tumor characterized by small blue cells.

23

Carcinogenesis

Mechanism of the development of malignant neoplasms.

24

Carcinoid

Traditional name of neuroendocrine tumors in GI and respiratory tract (currently applied just in lugn tumor classifications).

25

Carcinoma

Malignant epithelial neoplasm.

26

Carcinoma IN SITU

Severe form of intraepithelial neoplasia.

27

Carcinoma, MICROINVASIVE

Early, mircroscopic phase of invasiveness with low risk of metastatisation

28

Coarctation

Congenital narrowing of the aorta.

29

Condyloma

HPV associated benign warty tumor of the genital squamous epithelium.

30

Congestion

Deceleration and accumulation of blood in the venous system.

31

Cyst

Cavity with epithelial lining.

32

Degeneration

Disorder, not otherwise classified, resulting reversible structural and functional abnormality of an organ or tissue.

33

Dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin.

34

Desmoplasia

Tumor induced stromal reaction characterised by collagen rich connective tissue.

35

Diffuse

Affecting an organ or tissue in a continuous or widespread distribution (contrast with focal).

36

Diverticulum

Abnormal mucosal pouch formation of luminal viscera.

37

Dysplasia

Abnormal growth and differentiation of cells within the epithelium due to early neoplastic changes (=genetic damage).

38

Dystrophy

Disorder, not otherwise classified, resulting degeneration of a tissue.

39

Ectasia

Abnormal dilation of luminal structures.

40

Ectopia

Normal tissue in an inappropriate site.

41

Edema

Accumulation of fluid transudate within a tissue.

42

Embolus

Gas, fluid or solid mass within blood vessels, capable of blocking its lumen.

43

Emphysema

Enlargement of alveolar cavities due to disruption of alveolar membranes.

44

Empyema

Pus in a preformed cavity.

45

Endocarditis

Inflammatory process of the cardial valves.

46

Endophytic

Tumor growth inwards from a surface.

47

Epitheloid cell

Macrophage with epitheloid appearance, forming granulomas.

48

Erosion

Superficial damage of epithelial surfaces.

49

Exophytic

Tumor growth outwards from a surface.

50

Exudate

Extracellular accumulation of protein- rich fluid due to increased capillary permeability in acute inflammation.

51

Fibrosis

Collagenous connective tissue proliferation.

52

Fistule

Abnormal duct- like connection between luminal viscera and/ or skin.

53

Focal

Localised type of any lesion (contrast with diffuse).

54

Focal, MULTIPLE

Localised lesion, more than one.

55

Focal, SOLITARY

Localised, single lesion.

56

Giant cell

Multinucleated large cell of macrophage origin.

57

Giant cell, FOREIGN BODY TYPE

Characteristics for foreign body reaction.

58

Giant cell, LANGHANS TYPE

Characteristics for granulomatous inflammation.

59

Grade

Degree of malignant tumours' differentiation, based on its histological features.

60

Granulation tissue

Newly formed capillary rich connective tissue in regeneration/ replication.

61

Granuloma

Roundish aggregations of epitheloid and giant cells.

62

Hamartoma

Congeintal tumor- like mass composed of matured tissue elements normally present in the organ in which it arises.

63

Hematoma

Localised accumulation of coagulated blood with a solid tissue.

64

Hemopericardium

Blood in the pericardial sac (= tamponade).

65

Hemothorax

Blood in the thoracic cavity.

66

Herniation

Abnormal protursion of an organ, or part of it, outside its usual compartment.

67

Heterotopia

Presence of normal tissue in an abnormal location.

68

Hyaline

Amorphous, form texture of degenerated protein accumulation.

69

Hyperchromasia

Increased staining of the nucleus.

70

Hyperplasia

Enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the number of cells.

71

Hypertrophy

Enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of cells.

72

Infarction, ANEMIC

Death of tissue due to insufficient blood supply (ischemia).

73

Infarction, HEMORRHAGIC

Death of tissue due to insufficient blood supply and consequential bleeding (dual or collateral arterial system, or venous circulation).

74

Inflammation, ACUTE FIBROUS

Short term inflammation with fibrin- rich exudate.

75

Inflammation, ACUTE HEMORRHAGIC

Short term inflammation with capillary endothelial destruction and consequential bleeding.

76

Inflammation, ACUTE PURULENT

Short term inflammation with neutrophil- rich exudate.

77

Inflammation, ACUTE SEROUS

Short term inflammation with acellular exudate.

78

Inflammation, CHRONIC ACTIVE

Pattern of chronic mucosal inflammation mixed with acute inflammation of the glands.

79

Inflammation, CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS

Specific form of chronic inflammation characterised by granuloma formation.

80

Inflammation, CHRONIC NON- SPECIFIC

Long term inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes and plasma cells.

81

Invasion

Capability of malignant tumor cells to infiltrate normal tissues and enter blood vessels/ lymphatics.

82

Involution

Reduction of volume of an organ or tissue (similarly to atrophy) due to physiological processes (e.g. thymus).

83

Karyolysis

Form of nuclear destruction, fading.

84

Karyorrhexis

Form of nuclear destruction, fragmentation.

85

Koilocyte

HPV infected squamous epithelial cell characterised by nuclear irregularity, hyperchromasia and perinuclear halo.

86

Lithiasis

Formation of calculi (stones).

87

Lymphoma

Primary malignancy of lymphoid tissue.

88

Mastitis

Inflammation of the breast.

89

Melanoma

Primary malignancy of melanocytes.

90

Metaplasia

Adaptive process of a tissue characterised by transformation to another type of mature tissue.

91

Metastasis

Lymphatic, vascular or transluminal migration and mass formation of malignant tumor cells at other sites than the primary location.

92

Necrosis

Pathological, irreversible cell or tissue death in a living organism.

93

Neoplasm

Tissue growth due to abnormal and uncontrolled cell proliferation.

94

Oncogene

A gene abnormally expressed in tumor capable for transforming normal cell.

95

Orchitis

Inflammation of the testis.

96

Papilloma

Benign neoplasm of non- glandular epithelium.

97

Petechiae

Small are of bleeding.

98

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein.

99

Phlebothrombosis

Thrombosis of a vein.

100

Phlegmon

Diffuse form of acute purulent inflammation, spreading within the tissues.

101

Pleomorphism (polymorphism)

Variation in size and shape of cells, usually characteristic for malignant neoplasms.

102

Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lung.

103

Pneumothorax

Air in the thoracic cavity.

104

Polyp

Lesion protruded from a surface: pedunculated (with stalk) or sessile (broad- based without stalk).

105

Hydrothorax

Transudate in the thoracic cavity.

106

Proctitis

Inflammation of the rectum.

107

Pseudocyst

Newly formed cavity lacking an epithelial lining.

108

Pseudomembrane

Fibrinous exudate covering mucosal surface.

109

Pustule

Small abscess on the skin.

110

Pyknosis

Form of nuclear destruction, shrinkage.

111

Pyothorax

Pus in the thoracic cavity.

112

Recurrance

Neoplasm growing at the same place as previously treated primary tumor of identical type.

113

Regeneration

Healing with formation of new tissue identical to the lost one.

114

Relapse

Reappearance of the disease after a peroid of good health.

115

Remission

Period of good health prior to possible relapse of a chronic disease.

116

Reparation

Healing with formation of new tissue NOT identical to the lost one.

117

Resolution

Restoration of normality.

118

Salphingo- oophoritis

Inflammation of the adnex (ovary and tube).

119

Sarcoma

Malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin.

120

Shock

Collapse of circulation characterised by hypertension and failure of microcirculation.

121

Stasis

Stagnation of fluid due to obstruction and congestion.

122

Steatosis

Fatty degeneration of the liver.

123

Stenosis

Narrowing of the lumen.

124

Suppuration

Formation of pus.

125

Teratoma

Germ cell neoplasia that contains ecto-, endo- and mesodermal tissues, which can be matured or immatured.

126

Thrombus

Coagulated blood formed within the circulation.

127

Transudate

Extracellular accumulation of fluid of low protein content due to abnormal hydrostatic or oncostatic pressure in capillaries.

128

Tumor supressor gene

A gene that protects a cell from abnormal proliferation. Its inactivation promote malignant transformation.

129

Tumor, BENIGN

Abnormal cellular proliferation resulting local mass formation.

130

Tumor, MALIGNANT

Abnormal cellular proliferation with invasiveness and metastatisation.

131

Ulcer

Full thickness damage in a mucosal surface or skin.