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Flashcards in Definitions Deck (12)
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1

Attempting to find what premise or premises would have to be added to make the inference valid.

Unstated Premise

2

A statement of the form "if ... then ....", where the "if", the antecedent is reliant on the "then", the consequent.

Conditional Statement

3

A line of argument where the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion.

Deductive Argument

4

Where the truth of the premises only gives a high probability of the truth of the conclusion.

Inductive Argument

5

Represents the relationship between the premise and the conclusion.

Inference

6

True premises + validity of argument = Soundness

Sound Argument

7

Comparing one thing to another due to their likeness to each other.

Analogy

8

Words that bully us into accepting conclusions and premises when the reasoning is weak or flawed.

Clobber Words

9

Where the premises imply the conclusion such that if the premises are true the conclusion must also be true.

Validity

10

Mistakes or flaws in reasoning.

Fallacy

11

Words or phrases whose role is to help identify the structure of the reasoning.

Structure indicator

12

Inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis which would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. Abductive reasoning starts from a set of accepted facts and infers to their most likely, or best, explanations.
Example
The surprising phenomenon, X, is observed.
Among hypotheses A, B, and C, A is capable of explaining X.
Hence, there is a reason to pursue A.

Abduction