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Flashcards in defs 3 Deck (7)
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1

isomorphism

If R and S are rings then an isomorphism from R to S is a bijection θ : R → S such that, for all r, r' ∈ R we have
• θ(r + r') = θ(r) + θ(r') and
• θ(r × r') = θ(r) × θ(r')

If θ is an isomorphism from R to S then we write θ : R ' S. We say that R and S are isomorphic

2

homomorphism

If R and S are rings then a homomorphism from R to S is a map θ : R → S such that, for all r, r' ∈ R we have
• θ(r + r') = θ(r) + θ(r')
• θ(r × r') = θ(r) × θ(r')
• θ(1R) = 1S

3

embedding/monomorphism

An embedding, or monomorphism, is an injective (i.e. one-to-one) homomorphism

4

kernel

If θ : R → S is a homomorphism of rings then the kernel of θ, ker(θ), is the set, {r ∈ R | θ(r) = 0}, of elements which θ sends to 0S

5

automorhism

An automorphism of a ring is an isomorphism from the ring to itself

6

ideal

An ideal of a ring R is a subset I ⊆ R such that:
• 0 ∈ I;
• a + b ∈ I, for all a, b ∈ I;
• ar ∈ I and ra ∈ I, for all a ∈ I and for all r ∈ R.

write I

7

principal ideal generated by a

If a ∈ R then {r1as1 + · · · + rnasn | n ≥ 1, ri , si ∈ R} is, you
should check, an ideal which contains a and is the smallest ideal of R containing a.

It is called the principal ideal generated by a and is denoted . If R is commutative then its description simplifies: = {ar | r ∈ R}.

A principal ideal is one which can be generated by a single element.