# defs 5 Flashcards Preview

## Algebraic structures 2 > defs 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in defs 5 Deck (8)
1
Q

degree of f

A

f ∈ K[X] as f =SUM^n_i=0 aiXi with ai ∈ K.

If an =! 0 then the degree of f is n, deg(f) = n

2
Q

Division Theorem for Polynomials

A

Let K be a field and take f, g ∈ K[X] with g =! 0. Then there are (unique) q, r ∈ K[X] with

f = qg + r and deg(r) < deg(g) or r = 0

(q is the quotient and r the remainder when f is divided by g.)

3
Q

root/zero

A

An element a ∈ K is a root (or zero) of f ∈ K[X] if f(a) = 0.

4
Q

greatest common divisor

A

The greatest common divisor (or highest common factor) of polynomials f, g is a polynomial d such that d divides f and g and, if h is any polynomial dividing both f and g then h divides d.

Write d = gcd(f, g).

This polynomial is defined only up to a non-zero scalar multiple so, if we want a unique gcd then we can insist that d be monic (ie. coefficient of highest power
of X is equal to 1).

5
Q

irreducible

A

An element r ∈ R is irreducible if r is not invertible and

if, whenever r = st either s or t is invertible

6
Q

associated elements

A

Elements r, s ∈ R are associated if s = ur for some invertible element u ∈ R.

7
Q

Unique Factorisation Domain (UFD)

A

A commutative domain R is said to be a Unique Factorisation Domain (UFD), if every non-zero, non-invertible element of R has a unique factorisation as a product of irreducible elements.

’Uniqueness’ here means up to rearrangement of factors and associated factors

8
Q

Principal Ideal Domain (PID)

A

a commutative domain in which every ideal is principal (that is, is generated by a single element).