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Flashcards in Degenerative Conditions Deck (12):

What are some common degenerative muskuloskeletal system conditions?

- osteoporosis
- osteoarthritis
- spondylosis
- spinal stenosis
- chondromalacia


Signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment for degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis)?

- nonrheumatoid, nonsystemic disease
- often affects weight-bearing joints by degeneration or articular cartilage
SS - usually no morning stiffness (any stiffness can be improved w/Ex, gradual onset, initially one or few joints, as it progresses joint motion decreases, flexion contractures occur, tenderness and crepitus or grating appear.
DD - normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), abnormal radiographs, problems with weight-bearing joints
Tx - NSAIDS, functional training and edu, A/AA/PROM, isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, and postural Ex, ADL training, continue physical activities, possible surgery or joint replacement.


Signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment for osteoporosis?

- most common metabolic disease (white females most commonly)
- depletes bone mineral density which may predispose the individual to fracture (common sites = thoracic/lumbar spine, femoral neck, proximal humerus, proximal tibia, pelvis, distal radius)
- postmenopausal osteoporosis is directly related to a decrease in the production of estrogen
Tx - pain management, posture edu, breathing Ex, general conditioning, pectoral stretching, abdominal strength w/caution to avoid excessive/repeated spine flexion, weight-bearing Ex.


What is Paget's disease (osteitis deformans)?

- a slowly progressive metabolic bone disease
- initial phase of excessive bone reabsorption follow by a reactive phase of excessive abnormal bone formation
- usually affects several areas including spine, pelvis, femur, and skull
- can be fatal if associated with congested heart failure, bone sarcoma, or giant cell tumors
- vertebral collapse or vascular changes can lead to paraplegia
Tx - asymptomatic = no treatment, if symptoms pt will need drug therapy


What is RA and what are the Signs and symptoms?

- chronic, systemic inflammatory disease, most often women in 30's/40's, unknown etiology but immunological mechanism appears to play a important role.
- usually involves a symmetrical pattern of dysfunction in synovial tissues and articular cartilage of hand/wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, ankles, and feet.
- additional manifestations include eye lesions, infection, and osteoporosis.


Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)?

- rule out other diseases cause arthritis and + blood test for rheumatoid factor, insidious onset and slow progression.
- complaints of fatigue, weakness, and general diffuse MSK pain are often the initial presentation
- symmetrical bilateral presentation of specific joints
- intense joint pain/stiffness can last 30 min to several hours when initiating activities.
- deformities of fingers are common including ulnar deviation, swan neck or boutonniere deformities


Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)?

- reduce pain
- maintain mobility
- minimize joint stiffness, edema, or destruction
- prevent deformities with orthoses
- pt edu and continue adherence to the tx program are vital. Energy conservation is stressed.
- medications, rest, ambulatory devices, and ice are used during acute phases.


What is osteomyelitis?

- acute of chronic bone infection
- commonly from traumatic injury and acute infection


How is osteomyelitis treated?

- high doses of IV antibiotics
- infected extremity is immobilized by cast
- traction or bed rest
- sometime surgical intervention to drain infection
- if chronic, may require amputation.


What is osteoporosis?

- most common metabolic bone disease
- most common in white females
- depletes bone mineral density, predispose to fracture
- primarly postmenopausal osteoporosis is directly related to decrease in production of estrogen


How is osteoporosis treated?

- pain management
- postural re-edu
- breathing Ex
- general conditioning
- pectoral stretching
- abdominal strengthening (with caution)
- wt bearing Ex


This condition is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by hypo and hypertonia, LMN signs of fasciculations especially of tongue, primarily a motor disorder and cognition and sensation usually remain in tact.