Degenerative Diseases Flashcards Preview

Elysse NPTE NM > Degenerative Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Degenerative Diseases Deck (10):

Multiple Sclerosis

Affects: lesions develop in CNS.
Cause: Unknown; viral and autoimmune possible
Factors: precipitated by stress/ infections/ trauma, worsened by heat, dehydration, fatigue


Most common type of MS

Relapsing-remtting: 85%. Characterized by attacks then full or partial recovery for weeks or months.


Difference between primary and secondary progressive MS?

Primary progressive is progressive from the start with no episode of remitting. Secondary progressive starts as relapse-remitting.


Parkinson's Disease

Affects: CNS, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons at substantial nivea basal ganglia. Loss of inhibitory dopamine leads to excessive excitatory output of acetylcholine
Cause: infection, atherosclerosis, idiopathic, toxic, drug-induced
Factors: rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, impaired postural reflexes


Parkinson's Stages (Hoehn and Yahr)

I. Minimal or absent disability, unilateral symptoms
II. Minimal bilateral involvement.
III. Balance is involved, some activity restrictions.
IV. All symptoms present and severe, stands and walks with assistance.
V. Confined to bed or wheelchair.



Levodopa/ carbidopa: provides dopamine
Lasts about 2-3 years until deterioration occurs and dyskinesias may develop.


Anticholinergic drugs

Control tremor associated with PD


What drug is used early to slow progressions of PD?

MOI, increase dopamine


Myasthenia Gravis

Affects: PNS, acetylcholine receptors at NM junction
Causes: autoimmune antibody mediated
Factors: usually attacks bulbar (extra ocular, facial and mastication) and proximal limb-girdle muscles. worsens with continued mm contraction


What is the myasthenia crisis?

MG with respiratory failure; medical emergency