DENT 2060 Chapter 16 Oral Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DENT 2060 Chapter 16 Oral Epidemiology Deck (28):
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Father of Epidemiology

John Snow

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Epidemiology

the study of health and disease in human populations

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Quantitative data

can be counted

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Communicable disease

can be spread through ways of contact

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Contagious disease

can be spread through ways of contact very easilt

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Prevalence

total number of cases of a disease in a population; tells how widespread disease is

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Incidence

number of instances of illness during a given period in a population; conveys risk of contracting disease

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Endemic

diseases that are always present within a population of a particular area

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Epidemic

(outbreak) unusually high occurrence of disease in a community or region

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Epidemics in US

1976 Legionnaire's
1992-1993 E. coli
1993 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Crytosporidiosis
2002 West nile virus
2010 Swine flu

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Pandemic

disease that has spread over an entire country or the world; 1918 Spanish flu
modern: HIV

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Chain of infection

source of infection-reservoir-portal of entry-mode of transmission-portal of entry-susceptible host and back to source.

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Multiple causation

certain situations need to be right, more than one factor present for disease development

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Epidemiologic triangle

Agent/Causative Factors -- Host Factors -- Environmental Factors

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Count

number of persons in a group who have a particular disease; indices

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Proportion

count divided by total in group; percentage

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Morbidity

disease rates in a population; ratio of sick to healthy in a population

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Mortality

death rates in a population; ratio of sick to dead in a population

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Descriptive studies

First step in looking at a disease; describe it using 5 Ws: Who, What, When, Where, Why

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Analytical studies

Second step in looking at a disease; uses descriptive; Prospective and Retrospective studies

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Experimental studies

Longitudinal; cohort; case study; case - control study; pilot study

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Prospective

followed through time to determine if disease develops; track lifetimes; expensive and slow

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Retrospective

looks backwards and examines whether a past association exists

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Longitudinal

group studied over an extended period of time; long-term

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Cohort

have things in common

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Case study

In-depth study on single group, person, event or situation

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Case - control study

using a control group and comparing; cases versus controls; usually but not exclusively retrospective; uses to gain info; unethical to be experimental

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Pilot

small version of proposed study; smaller scale; works out errors; revisions can be made and then larger study conducted