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Flashcards in derm Deck (48)
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1

xanthoma

associated with hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative malignancies; associated with lipid-laden histiocytes in the dermis

2

cherry/senile hemangioma

small, bright-red papular lesions in 3rd/4th decade; do not regress spontaneously and are always cutaneous

3

strawberry hemangioma

appear in infants; regress spontaneously by 5-8 years of age; bright red near epidermis, more violaceous if deeper

4

cavernous hemangiomas

dilated vascular spaces with thin-walled endothelial cells in the dermis; appear on skin, mucosa, viscera; if on brain/viscera, consider VHL

5

cystic hygromas

lymphatic cysts lined by a thin endothelium; present at birth along neck and lateral chest wall; found in turner/t21 syndrome

6

xerderma pigmentosum

AR mutation that impaires DNA excision repair following UV dmg; pw erythema, scaling, and subsequent hyperpigmentation and lentigo formation in light-exposed areas; skin malignancies develop at 5-6 years of life

7

fanconi anemia

AR, hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents

8

male patten baldness pw, moa, rx

anterior/vertex balding; scalp 5-alpha reducetase activity and the androgenic effects of DHT; finasteride

9

PKU pw, genetics

mental retardation, eczema, mousy body order; AR mutation of phenylalanine hydroxylase

10

PABA-ester sun screen

UVB radiation (290-320) absorbers

11

acanthosis

increase in thickness of stratum spinosum (seen in psoriasis)

12

dyskeratosis

abnormal, premature keratinization of keratinocytes; strongly eosinophilic (seen in SCC)

13

hyperparakeratosis

retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum, incomplete keratinization (normal in mucosa, but abnormal in skin - actinic keratosis)

14

hyergranulosis

excess granulation in the stratum granulosom of the epidermis (seen in lichen planus)

15

spongiosis

intercellular epidermal edema that appears as an increase in the width of spaces between cells; primary histological finding in pt with eczematous dermatitis

16

RBC extravasation into skin/subQ tissues results in formation of what?

petechiae (1 cm); do not blanch as capillaries are not patent

17

thymidine kinase-deficient VCV means? how to treat?

acyclovir-resistent VCV in AIDS pt; rx with foscarnet (pyrophosphate analog viral DNA polymerase inhibitor) or cidofovir (antiviral nucleotide analogue of cytidine monophosphate, does not require viral kinase)

18

marjolin's ulcer

aggressive, ulcerating SCC on area of previous trauma, chronically inflammed or scarred skin

19

isotretinoin moa, SE

inhibits follicular epidermal keratinzation, loosening keratin plugs of comedones; hypertriglyceridemia and teratogenicity

20

stewart-treves syndrome

chronic lymphedema (2/2 axillar LN dissection) predisposes to angiosarcoma

21

lichen planus pw (5 Ps)

polygonal, planar, pruritic, purplish plaques; a.w. hep C

22

xanthelesma pw, histo, a.w.

yellow cutaneous lesion on eyelid; lipid-laden macrophages in superficial dermis; cholestatic processes like obstructive biliary lesions or PBC

23

vitiligo histo

loss of melanocytes, complete absence of melanin pigment

24

albinism histo

melanocytes that do not produce melanin (because of absent/defective tyrosinase)

25

pemphigus vulgaris pw, moa

painful, flaccid bullae and erosions ofskin/mucosal membranes; autoantibodies against desmoglein

26

chronic steroid administration to skin results in:

atrophy/thinning of dermis, a.w. loss of dermal collagen, dring/cracking/tightening, telangiectasias, ecchymosis

27

atopic eczematous dermatitis: histo

intraepidermal vesicles, superficial epidermal hyperkeratosis producing scales, epidermal hyperplasia (acanthosis), chronic inflammatory infiltrate

28

actinic keratosis

erythematous papules with central scale/rought "sandpaper-like" texture; premaligmant (SCC)

29

acantholysis

loss of intercellular connections

30

pemphigus vulgaris

acantholysis forming suprabasal blisters, IgG deposits in reticular pattern around keratinocytes