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Flashcards in Renal Deck (104)
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1

Kidney artery tree

Renal, segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular

2

12th rib fracture lacerates what structure?

Kidney

3

Ureteric bud derivatives

Collecting system, including collecting tubules and ducts, major/minor calyces, renal pelvic, and ureters

4

Metanephric mesoderm/blastema derivatives

Glomeruli, Bowman's space, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal convulted tubulues

5

Post-streptococcal GN: histo

Subepithelial humps (electron-dense deposits on epithelial side of GM), composed of IC made up of IgG, IgM, C3

6

Crescentic GN: histo

Prominent fibrin deposition

7

Renal cancer RF

Tobacco smoke, obesity, HTN

8

Bladder cancer RF

Tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to rubber, textiles, leather

9

Renal angiomyolipoma

Benigh tumor comporised of blood vessels, smooth muscles, and fat; bilateral renal angiomyolipomas are associated with tuberous sclerosis (AD)

10

Uric acid crystallization occurs in what structure, and is prevented by what?

Collecting duct (2/2 low urine PH); thus, give hydration and urine alkalinization to prevent

11

GFR is estimated by calculating the clearance of what substance?

Inulin

12

PAH

Freely filtered at glomerulus, and secreted into the urine at the proximal tubule (thus, excretion > filtered load)

13

Calcineurin

Protein phosphatase that, once activated, dephosphorylates NFAT and allows the latter to bind the IL-2. IL-2 stimulates growth and differentiation of T-cells. Inhibit with cyclosporine or tacrolimus.

14

Oxybutynin

Antimuscarinic agent used for urge incontinence

15

Post-op urinary retention rx

Bethanechol (muscarinic agonist)

16

GRE and creatinine relationship

If GFR normal, relatively large decreases will only result in small increases in Cr. If GFR is significantly decreased, small decreases will produce relatively large increases in Cr. Every time GFR is halved, Cr doubles.

17

Left and right renal vein differences

Left renal vein drains the left suprarenal vein (obstruction causes varicocele) and the left gonadal vein

18

Amphotericin B MOA, SE

Binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes to form holes; Nephrotoxicity causing severe hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia

19

Sudden onset of abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, L-sided varicocele

Renal vein thrombosis

20

Furosemide MOA

inhibit Na-K-2Cl symporter @ loop of Henle, causing increased Na, Cl, fluid excretion; and stimulate prostaglandin release (NSAIDs will thus blunt diuretic effect)

21

UTI pathogenesis

Suppression of endogenous flora, colonization of distal uretrha by pathogenic gram-negative rods, and attachment of such pathogens to bladder mucosa

22

What is necessary for development of acute pyelonephritis?

Anatomic or functional vesicoureteral reflux

23

PT: what substrates increase in concentration?

PAH, creatinine, inulin, urea

24

PT: what substrates do not change in concentration?

Na, K

25

PT: what substrates decrease in concentration?

Bicarb, glucose, AA

26

Furosemide SE

Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia; ototoxicity

27

Clear cell carcinoma

Renal tubular cells; histo: rounded/polygonal cells with abundant clear cytolasm with high glycogen or lipid content

28

Visual impairment of HIV pt; rx, SE?

CMV-induced retinitis; ganciclovir, foscarnet; foscarnet SE: hypocalcemia (chelates with Ca), hypomagnesemia (nephrogenic wasting)

29

Calcium stone prevention

Ample fluid intact, high-normal calcium intake, low-protein diet, low-sodium diet

30

Calcium stones with hyperoxaluria

Vitamin B6 (decreases endogenous oxalate production)