Flashcards in Renal Deck (104)
Kidney artery tree
Renal, segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular
12th rib fracture lacerates what structure?
Ureteric bud derivatives
Collecting system, including collecting tubules and ducts, major/minor calyces, renal pelvic, and ureters
Metanephric mesoderm/blastema derivatives
Glomeruli, Bowman's space, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal convulted tubulues
Post-streptococcal GN: histo
Subepithelial humps (electron-dense deposits on epithelial side of GM), composed of IC made up of IgG, IgM, C3
Crescentic GN: histo
Prominent fibrin deposition
Renal cancer RF
Tobacco smoke, obesity, HTN
Bladder cancer RF
Tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to rubber, textiles, leather
Benigh tumor comporised of blood vessels, smooth muscles, and fat; bilateral renal angiomyolipomas are associated with tuberous sclerosis (AD)
Uric acid crystallization occurs in what structure, and is prevented by what?
Collecting duct (2/2 low urine PH); thus, give hydration and urine alkalinization to prevent
GFR is estimated by calculating the clearance of what substance?
Freely filtered at glomerulus, and secreted into the urine at the proximal tubule (thus, excretion > filtered load)
Protein phosphatase that, once activated, dephosphorylates NFAT and allows the latter to bind the IL-2. IL-2 stimulates growth and differentiation of T-cells. Inhibit with cyclosporine or tacrolimus.
Antimuscarinic agent used for urge incontinence
Post-op urinary retention rx
Bethanechol (muscarinic agonist)
GRE and creatinine relationship
If GFR normal, relatively large decreases will only result in small increases in Cr. If GFR is significantly decreased, small decreases will produce relatively large increases in Cr. Every time GFR is halved, Cr doubles.
Left and right renal vein differences
Left renal vein drains the left suprarenal vein (obstruction causes varicocele) and the left gonadal vein
Amphotericin B MOA, SE
Binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes to form holes; Nephrotoxicity causing severe hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia
Sudden onset of abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, L-sided varicocele
Renal vein thrombosis
inhibit Na-K-2Cl symporter @ loop of Henle, causing increased Na, Cl, fluid excretion; and stimulate prostaglandin release (NSAIDs will thus blunt diuretic effect)
Suppression of endogenous flora, colonization of distal uretrha by pathogenic gram-negative rods, and attachment of such pathogens to bladder mucosa
What is necessary for development of acute pyelonephritis?
Anatomic or functional vesicoureteral reflux
PT: what substrates increase in concentration?
PAH, creatinine, inulin, urea
PT: what substrates do not change in concentration?
PT: what substrates decrease in concentration?
Bicarb, glucose, AA
Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia; ototoxicity
Clear cell carcinoma
Renal tubular cells; histo: rounded/polygonal cells with abundant clear cytolasm with high glycogen or lipid content
Visual impairment of HIV pt; rx, SE?
CMV-induced retinitis; ganciclovir, foscarnet; foscarnet SE: hypocalcemia (chelates with Ca), hypomagnesemia (nephrogenic wasting)
Calcium stone prevention
Ample fluid intact, high-normal calcium intake, low-protein diet, low-sodium diet