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Flashcards in first assessment Deck (96)
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1

paget's dz of bone increases risk of

osteosarcoma; destruction of normal bone pattern, mixed radiodense/radiolucent areas, periosteal new bone formation, lifting of the cortex, "sunburst" pattern of adjacentsoft tissue

2

radiographic sign of avascular necrosis

crescent sign (subchondral collapse)

3

globus hystericus

sensation of a "lump in the throat" with no exam findings

4

vitamin A toxicity

micrcephaly, cardiac anomalies, early epiphyseal closure, growth retardation, spontaneous abortion

5

DNA laddering

used to distinguish apoptotic cells from necrotic cells; during karyorrhexis, endonucleases degrade DNA into 180 base pair fragments, equally spaced on gel electrophoresis

6

physostigmine

cholinesterase inhibitor

7

atropine

competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine

8

pralidoxime

antidote to organophosphorus anticholinesterase that inhibit cholinesterase through phosphorylation

9

anticholinergic toxicity

confusion, blurred vision, dry MM, intense thirst

10

acute promyelocytic leukemia

t(15,17)

11

burkitt lymphoma

round nuclei with basophilic cytoplasm containing prominent lipid vacuoles; t(8,14)

12

chronic myelogenous leukemia

immature myeloid cells t(9,22)

13

acute lymphocytic leukemia

t(12,21)

14

follicular lymphoma

malignant cells with notches or clefts; t(14,18)

15

IL-2 produced by, moa

antigen-stimulated T cells; stimulate growht and differentiation of T cells (binds IL-2R), B cells, NK cells, and macrophages

16

IL-1 produced by, moa

macrophages, activates lymphocytes and stimulates systemic illness (fever, lethargy, anorexia)

17

TNF-alpha produced by, fxn

activated macrophages, induces systemic inflammatory response (and in high levels, causes shock)

18

interferon-alpha produced by, fxn

monocytes, macrophages, B cells, NK cells; antiviral functions (replication inhibition w/i cells, protection of uninfected cells, and stimulation of cytotix lymphocyte and NK cell antiviral activity)

19

GM-CSF produced by, fxn

macrophages, t cells, Nk cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts; stimulates rpoduction of granulocytes and monocytes

20

cadherins

Ca-dependent transmembrane proteins that participate in desmosome formation with cadherins of adjoining cells; do not parcitipate in hemidesmosome function

21

hemidesmosomes structure, fxn

integrin-mediated binding to basement membrane (type 4 collagen), facilitated by fibronectin

22

acid chyme in duodenum triggers what response?

1. gallbladder bile release, and 2. stimulates S-cells in the crypts of lieberkuhn to release secretin into systemic circulation which stimulate pancreas to release bicarb-rich fluid (via CL/bicarb exchange protein on the apical surface of the pancreatic cells)

23

endometritis

uterus infection; fever, leukocytosis, uterine tenderness and foul discharge; most commonly caused by bacteroides

24

nunmular eczema

occurs in xerosis (dry skin); pw pruritic, coin-shaped, erythematous patches

25

sublimation vs displacement

former is a mature defense mechanism where one channels socially unacceptable thoughts/impulses into acceptable actions

26

tyrosine kinase receptor structure, and signals that use tyrosine kinase receptor

transmembrane proteins with ligand-binding extracellular region, hydrophobic transmembrane regino, and intracellular domain that dimerizes and has inducible tyrosine kinase activity; insulin, epidermal growth factor, PDGF and VEGF

27

receptor mediated endocytosis moa, example

receptors are pooled in clathrin-coated regions ("pits") that are internalized upon binding; LDL receptor

28

interview: reflection vs summarizing

repeating what pt said; summarizing has multiple ideas

29

vasomotor rhinitis

chronic nasal congestion that worsens with abrupt changes in temperature/humidity or exposure to odors/alcohol

30

heminephrectomy effect on GFR

immedatiely, 50 percent; compensatory hyperfiltration and hypertrophy of remaining neurons leads to 80 percent in several weeks