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Flashcards in Dermatology Management Deck (58):
1

How can treatment modalities for dermatology be broadly categorised?

- Medical therapy
- Physical therapy

2

How can medical therapy in dermatology be further categorised?

- Topical
- Systemic

3

What are the types of physical dermatology treatments?

- Cryotherapy
- Phototherapy
- Photodynamic therapy
- Lasers
- Surgery

4

How do topical dermatological therapies work?

Deliver treatment directly to the affected areas

5

What is the advantage of topical therapies?

Reduces the systemic side-effects

6

What conditions are topical therapies suitable for?

Localised and less severe skin conditions

7

What do topical therapies consist of?

- Active constituents
- Base

8

What is the role of the base in topical therapies?

Transport the active constituents into the skin

9

What are some examples of active constituents in dermatological topical therapies?

- Steroids
- Tar
- Immunomodulators
- Retinoids
- Antibiotics

10

What are the common forms of base used in topical therapies?

- Lotion
- Cream
- Gel
- Ointment
- Paste

11

What is a lotion?

A liquid

12

What is a cream?

Oil in water

13

What is a gel?

Organic polymers in liquid - transparent

14

What is an ointment?

Oil with little to no water

15

What is a paste?

Powder in an ointment

16

When are systemic therapies preferred in dermatology?

- Extensive disease
- Serious disease
- Systemic involvement
- Topical treatment failure

17

What is the main disadvantage of systemic therapies?

Can cause systemic side-effects

18

What are the most common medical therapies used in dermatology?

- Emollients
- Topical/oral steroids
- Oral aciclovir
- Oral antihistamines
- Topical/oral antibiotics
- Topical antiseptics
- Oral retinoids

19

What is the aim of emollients?

Rehydrate the skin and re-establish the surface lipid layer

20

When are emollients used?

Dry, scaling conditions and as soap substitutes

21

What are some examples of emollients?

- Aqueous cream
- Emulsifying ointment
- Liquid paraffin

22

What are the potential side-effects of emollients?

Irritant or allergic reactions

23

What are the aims of steroids in dermatology?

Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects

24

What conditions can steroids be used for in dermatology?

- Allergic and immune reactions
- Inflammatory skin conditions
- Blistering disorders
- Connective tissue diseases
- Vasculitis

25

What types of steroids are used in dermatology?

- Topical
- Oral

26

How are topical steroids classified?

By their potency

27

What are the different potencies of topical steroids?

- Mildly potent
- Moderately potent
- Potent
- Very potent

28

What is a mildly potent topical steroid?

Hydrocortisone

29

What is a moderately potent topical steroid?

Eumovate

30

What is a potent topical steroid?

Betnovate

31

What is a very potent topical steroid?

Dermovate

32

What is an example of an oral steroid?

Prednisolone

33

What are the local side-effects of topical steroids?

- Skin thinning (atrophy)
- Telangiectasia
- Striae
- Skin infections
- Acne
- Perioral and allergic contact dermatitis

34

What are the systemic side-effects of steroids?

- Cushing's syndrome
- Immunosuppression
- Hypertension
- Diabetes
- Osteoporosis
- Cataract
- Steroid-induced psychosis

35

What are the indications of oral aciclovir?

Viral infections due to herpes simplex and herpes zoster

36

What are the side-effects of oral aciclovir?

- GI upset
- Raised liver enzymes
- Reversible neurological reactions
- Haematological disorders

37

What are the uses of oral antihistamines?

- Type-1 hypersensitivity reactions
- Eczema (especially sedative type in children)

38

How do oral antihistamines work?

Block histamine receptors producing an anti-pruritic effect

39

How can oral antihistamines be classified?

- Sedative
- Nonsedative

40

What are some examples of sedative oral antihistamines?

- Chlorpheniramine
- Hydroxyzine

41

What are some examples of nonsedative oral antihistamines?

- Cetirizine
- Loratidine

42

What are the side-effects of sedative antihistamines?

- Sedation
- Anticholinergic effects

43

What are some examples of anticholinergic effects caused by sedative antihistamines?

- Dry mouth
- Blurred vision
- Urinary retention
- Constipation

44

What are topical/oral antibiotics used for in dermatology?

- Bacterial skin conditions
- Acne

45

What are some examples of topical antibiotics?

- Fusidic acid
- Mupirocin
- Neomycin

46

What are some examples of oral antibiotics?

- Penicillins
- Cephalosporins
- Gentamicin
- Macrolides
- Nitrofurantoin
- Quinolones
- Tetracyclines
- Vancomycin
- Metronidazole
- Trimethoprim

47

What are the side-effects of topical antibiotics?

Local skin irritation/allergy

48

What are the potential side-effects of oral antibiotics?

- GI upset
- Rashes
- Anaphylaxis
- Vaginal candidiasis
- C. diff
- Antibiotic resistance

49

What are the indications of topical antiseptics?

Treat and prevent skin infection

50

What are some examples of topical antiseptics?

- Chlorhexidine
- Cetrimide
- Povidone-iodine

51

What are the potential side-effects of topical antiseptics?

Local skin irritation/allergy

52

What are the indications for oral retinoids?

- Acne
- Psoriasis
- Disorders of keratinisation

53

What are the side-effects of oral retinoids?

- Mucocutaneous reactions
- Disordered liver function
- Hypercholesterolaemia
- Hypertriglyceridaemia
- Myalgia
- Arthralgia
- Depression
- Teratogenicity

54

What are the mucocutaneous side-effects of oral retinoids?

- Dry skin
- Dry eyes
- Dry lips

55

What precautions must be taken when prescribing oral retinoids?

Effective contraception

56

What are some examples of oral retinoids?

- Isotretinoin
- Acitretin

57

How long must effective contraception be used in isotretinoin?

- One month before
- During
- One month after

58

How long must effective contraception . be used in acitretin?

- One month before
- During
- 2 years after