Flashcards in Dermatology Management Deck (58):
How can treatment modalities for dermatology be broadly categorised?
- Medical therapy
- Physical therapy
How can medical therapy in dermatology be further categorised?
What are the types of physical dermatology treatments?
- Photodynamic therapy
How do topical dermatological therapies work?
Deliver treatment directly to the affected areas
What is the advantage of topical therapies?
Reduces the systemic side-effects
What conditions are topical therapies suitable for?
Localised and less severe skin conditions
What do topical therapies consist of?
- Active constituents
What is the role of the base in topical therapies?
Transport the active constituents into the skin
What are some examples of active constituents in dermatological topical therapies?
What are the common forms of base used in topical therapies?
What is a lotion?
What is a cream?
Oil in water
What is a gel?
Organic polymers in liquid - transparent
What is an ointment?
Oil with little to no water
What is a paste?
Powder in an ointment
When are systemic therapies preferred in dermatology?
- Extensive disease
- Serious disease
- Systemic involvement
- Topical treatment failure
What is the main disadvantage of systemic therapies?
Can cause systemic side-effects
What are the most common medical therapies used in dermatology?
- Topical/oral steroids
- Oral aciclovir
- Oral antihistamines
- Topical/oral antibiotics
- Topical antiseptics
- Oral retinoids
What is the aim of emollients?
Rehydrate the skin and re-establish the surface lipid layer
When are emollients used?
Dry, scaling conditions and as soap substitutes
What are some examples of emollients?
- Aqueous cream
- Emulsifying ointment
- Liquid paraffin
What are the potential side-effects of emollients?
Irritant or allergic reactions
What are the aims of steroids in dermatology?
Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects
What conditions can steroids be used for in dermatology?
- Allergic and immune reactions
- Inflammatory skin conditions
- Blistering disorders
- Connective tissue diseases
What types of steroids are used in dermatology?
How are topical steroids classified?
By their potency
What are the different potencies of topical steroids?
- Mildly potent
- Moderately potent
- Very potent
What is a mildly potent topical steroid?
What is a moderately potent topical steroid?
What is a potent topical steroid?
What is a very potent topical steroid?
What is an example of an oral steroid?
What are the local side-effects of topical steroids?
- Skin thinning (atrophy)
- Skin infections
- Perioral and allergic contact dermatitis
What are the systemic side-effects of steroids?
- Cushing's syndrome
- Steroid-induced psychosis
What are the indications of oral aciclovir?
Viral infections due to herpes simplex and herpes zoster
What are the side-effects of oral aciclovir?
- GI upset
- Raised liver enzymes
- Reversible neurological reactions
- Haematological disorders
What are the uses of oral antihistamines?
- Type-1 hypersensitivity reactions
- Eczema (especially sedative type in children)
How do oral antihistamines work?
Block histamine receptors producing an anti-pruritic effect
How can oral antihistamines be classified?
What are some examples of sedative oral antihistamines?
What are some examples of nonsedative oral antihistamines?
What are the side-effects of sedative antihistamines?
- Anticholinergic effects
What are some examples of anticholinergic effects caused by sedative antihistamines?
- Dry mouth
- Blurred vision
- Urinary retention
What are topical/oral antibiotics used for in dermatology?
- Bacterial skin conditions
What are some examples of topical antibiotics?
- Fusidic acid
What are some examples of oral antibiotics?
What are the side-effects of topical antibiotics?
Local skin irritation/allergy
What are the potential side-effects of oral antibiotics?
- GI upset
- Vaginal candidiasis
- C. diff
- Antibiotic resistance
What are the indications of topical antiseptics?
Treat and prevent skin infection
What are some examples of topical antiseptics?
What are the potential side-effects of topical antiseptics?
Local skin irritation/allergy
What are the indications for oral retinoids?
- Disorders of keratinisation
What are the side-effects of oral retinoids?
- Mucocutaneous reactions
- Disordered liver function
What are the mucocutaneous side-effects of oral retinoids?
- Dry skin
- Dry eyes
- Dry lips
What precautions must be taken when prescribing oral retinoids?
What are some examples of oral retinoids?
How long must effective contraception be used in isotretinoin?
- One month before
- One month after