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Flashcards in Development Deck (23)
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1

Industry types

Primary - using natural resources eg. farming
Secondary - making it eg. manufacture
Tertiary - providing a service eg. teacher
Quaternary - Research and development eg. software developer

2

Definition of Standard of living

How well off a person or country is focusing purely on the economy

3

Definition of Quality of life

A measure of how happy and content people are with their lives

4

HDI

A statistic used to rank countries by level of 'human development'

5

Physical factors causing a development gap

Landlocked countries
Lack of natural resources
Natural Hazards
Lack of access to safe drinking water
Inhospitable climate

6

Economic factors causing a development gap

Unfair trade
Over reliance on farming
Growth of MNCs
Lack of technology
In debt to other countries

7

Political factors causing a development gap

Internal instability
Corruption

8

Cultural factors causing a development gap

Indigenous tribes choosing traditional ways of life
Some societies don't see the value in material goods

9

Historical Factors causing a development gap

Former colonies were left in turmoil after given independence eg. India

10

Causes of changes over time

Rising costs
Transport
Technology
Competition
Outsourcing

11

Outsourcing

Saves money as work is sent elsewhere where it can be done for cheaper

12

Technology

Advances in ICT means more work from home

13

Transport

Makes corrupting & migrating easier because there are fewer barriers to travel

14

Competition

Fewer people are needed to work now eg. banking uses ICT

15

Rising costs

As wage increases it means costs go up in MEDCs so work moves elsewhere eg. manufacturing

16

Location factors for different industries

Raw materials
Transport links
Capital
Government policy
Energy supply
Environment
Labour (skilled/cheap)
Topography

17

Definition of Globalisation

Worldwide interconnectedness & interdependence

18

Reasons for Globalistion

International trade links
Development of MNCs Companies working in NICs
Government support
Free trade system
Improved technology
Easier transport links
Flexible migration of migration of workers

19

Primary decrease over time

Improvements in tech leads to more machines replacing workers
Raw materials becoming cheaper to import
Jobs with fewer career prospects

20

Secondary decrease over time

Technology replacing workers
Cheap labour in other countries

21

Tertiary increase over time

Aspirations increase
Urban population increase

22

Positives of MNCs in LEDCs

Employment
Higher wages
Improved skills of local population
Leads it local businesses developing with newly skilled workforce
Improved trading position
More tax ➡️ GDP increase ➡️ spent on health, education etc.

23

Negatives of MNCs in LEDCs

Clash of cultures
No job security
MMCs influencing political decisions
Environmental impacts (CO2 emissions from transporting goods to MEDCs to be sold)