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Psychology 101 > Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development Deck (48):
1

Longitudinal design

one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time

2

Cross-sectional design

several different age groups are studied at one particular point of time

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Cross-sequential design

participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also followed and assessed

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Nature

the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

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Nurture

the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

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4 critical areas of adjustment for the newborn (physical development)

Respiration, digestion, circulation, temperature regulation

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Infants are born with reflexes that help it survive

sucking, rooting, moro (startle) grasping, stepping reflex, babinski (toes fan out when foot is touched)

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Human development

the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death

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teratogen

any substance or factor that can cause a birth defect

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critical periods

environmental influences can have a heavy impact on infant development

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Cognitive development

The development of thinking, problem solving, and memory scheme

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Schema

mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events

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Piaget's stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operations, Formal operations

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Sensorimotor stage

the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment

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object permanence

the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight

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Preoperational stage

the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world

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Egocentricism

the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes

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Centration

the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features

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Conservation

the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature

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Irreversibility

the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action

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Formal operations stage

development of abstract reasoning, the ability to think of and test hypotheses, can think of logical possibilities for hypothetical events

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Erikson's psychosocial stages of development

trust vs mistrust → autonomy vs shame and doubt → initiative vs guilt → industry vs inferiority → identity vs role confusion → intimacy vs isolation →generativity vs stagnation → ego integrity vs despair

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trust vs mistrust

0-1 year old
The infant's basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care

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autonomy vs shame and doubt

2-3 years old
The toddler strives for physical independence

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initiative vs guilt

3-5 years old
The preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world

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industry vs inferiority

6-13 years old
Child strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem

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identity vs role confusion

13-20something
The adolescent must find a consistent sense of self

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Gender identity

perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender

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Gender expression

the behavior associated with being male or female

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intimacy vs isolation

The young adult is able to share the self with others, or another, without losing individuality

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generativity vs stagnation

The adult is challenged to be creative, productive, and to nurture the next generation

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Temperament

the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth

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Easy

regular, adaptable, and happy

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Difficult

irregular, nonadaptable, and irritable

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Slow to warm up

need to adjust gradually to change

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Attachment

the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver

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Secure

willing to explore, upset when mother departs but easily soothed upon her return

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Avoidant

unattached; explore without "touching base"

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Ambivalent

insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves and angry with mother upon her return

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Disorganized

disoriented: insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; seemed fearful, dazed, and depressed

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Vygotsky's theory of learning

scaffolding and zone of proximal development

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scaffolding

process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable

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zone of proximal development (ZPD)

the difference between what a child can do alone and
what that child can do with the help of a teacher.

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Kohlberg's levels of morality

preconventional, conventional, postconventional

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preconventional morality

the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior

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conventional morality

the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior

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postconventional morality

moral principles are defined and are used to determine right from wrong. These may not always be the same as societal norms

48

concrete operations stage

The school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking