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Flashcards in Development Deck (51)
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1

Freud - Psychoanalytic Theory

Human behavior is determined by the action and the interplay of unconscious drives: pleasure and aggression

2

Freud - Psychoanalytic Theory
Subconscious (unconscious)

repressed experiences and fantasies (content too overwhelming)

3

Freud - Psychoanalytic Theory
Preconscious

content not needed in the moment, but could be accessed - suppressed NOT repressed - "I'll worry about that tomorrow"

4

Freud - Psychoanalytic Theory
Conscious

access to stimuli from the outer world, as well as, "inner events" thoughts emotions and memories - reality based functioning

5

Freud - Psychoanalytic Theory
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO

ID - primal desires, basic nature - your wild child
EGO - reason and self-control - your practical "grown up" self
Superego - the quest for perfection - your philosophical and spiritual ideals

6

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development

Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital

7

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage 1

Oral
Birth-1 year
point of interest = mouth
activities for gratification = sucking, chewing

8

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage 2

Anal
1-3 years
Point of interest = anus
Activities for gratification = withholding or expelling feces

9

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage 3

Phallic
3-6 years
point of interest=genitals
activities for gratification = fondling with genitals, masturbation

10

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage 4

Latency
6-puberty
Point of Interest = Environment
Activities for gratification = games, play

11

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage 5

Genital
Adolescence/Adulthood
Point of interest = opposite
activities for gratification = crushes, going steady, marriage

12

Personality Development via Psychosexual Stages: Adult Personality Types

Oral: infantile, demanding, dependent behavior
Preoccupation with oral gratification
Anal: stinginess, focus on accumulating and collecting
Rigidity in forms and routines
Suspiciousness
Legalistic thinking
Phallic: selfishly exploits others without out regard for needs or concerns

13

Evolution of Defense MechanismsAnna Freud

Unconscious attempts, by ego, to expel from consciousness sexual and aggressive impulses
Result is reduction in anxiety
Not inherently pathological; issue is their rigidity or inflexibility as it affects social functioning

14

Denial

Confrontation with a personal problem or with reality is avoided by denying the existence of the problem or reality

15

Projection

Rejects his or her own unacceptable attributes by ascribing them to others.

16

Regression

Resuming behaviors associated with an earlier developmental stage or level of functioning in order to avoid present anxiety.
(Ex: First born child shows bed-wetting after new sibling is born)

17

Repression

Keeping unwanted thoughts and feelings entirely out of awareness or consciousness.
A crucial mechanism in all neurotic behavior.
Major repression: loss of memory for specific incidents, especially traumatic ones or those associated with painful emotions (fugue state)
Minor repression: lapses of memory at significant times (introducing a well-known speaker)

18

Suppression

Putting out of awareness, consciously, something that is disturbing and anxiety provoking (can be helpful)

19

Displacement

Shifting negative feelings about one person or situation onto another

20

Intellectualization

Avoiding unacceptable emotions…hyper intellectual manner

21

Introjection

Person internalizes the beliefs of other people. (common among children and parents).When people introject, they identify with a person or object so strongly that they cannot separate that person or object from themselves.

22

Identification

Person patterns his or her personality on that of another person, assuming the person's qualities, characteristics, and actions.
Normal for 3- to 5-year-olds who identify with parental same-sex figures.
Resurgence in adolescence as a major task of identifying with peers.
Beyond these…it is seen as maladaptive

23

Isolation of Affect

Splitting of thoughts from the feelings originally associated with them
Repression of feelings associated with particular content or experience
Recognizable in the person who is able to talk about things that would ordinarily make a person wince without any noticeable feeling
Ex. A doctor describing a mutilated accident victim in cool clinical terms is someone who is adaptively using isolation of affect.

24

Rationalizing

Justifying one's behaviors and motivations by substituting "good", acceptable reasons for these real motivations
Ex. “I always study hard for tests and I know a lot of people who cheat so it's not a big deal I cheated this time.”

25

Undoing

Trying to reverse or "undo" a thought or feeling by performing an action that signifies an opposite feeling than your original thought or feeling
Ex. You have feelings of dislike for someone so you buy them a gift

26

Denial

Not accepting reality because it is too painful.
Ex. You are arrested for drunk driving several times but don't believe you have a problem with alcohol

27

Splitting

Everything in the world is seen as all good or all bad with nothing in between.
Ex. You think your best friend is absolutely worthless because he forgot a lunch date with you.

28

Reaction Formation

Involves replacing an impulse with its extreme opposite.
Often turning the forbidden wish into its opposite.
Response is often seen as excessive, “too much”
Ex. Person who feels an uncontrollable need to drink instead forbids all drinking, pickets taverns, and does everything possible to stop the entire world from drinking alcoholic beverages.

29

Somatization

Tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of physical symptoms and to seek medical help for them

30

Sublimation

Converting an impulse from a socially unacceptable aim to a socially acceptable one (aggression…football)