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What is germ theory?

Germs are passed from one to the other, and cause illness; something that you cannot see.


Who is the founder of professional nursing?

Florence Nightingale


What did Florence Nightingale do for nursing as a practice?

Dramatically decreased mortality and morbidity rates with smile nursing care.
She did not believe in germ theory, but did believe in hand washing and hygiene as a contributing factor to good health. She prevented physicians from moving between patients without washing their hands.


First hospital in Canada?

Sick bay; 1629 in Port Royal/Acadia


Who founded first financially independent nursing schools?

Florence Nightingale 1860


First hospital nursing school in Canada?

1874 - St. Catherine's Training School
Students provided care in exchange for education and cost of living; free labor for the hospital.


What did Mary Agnes Snively do?

In 1896 she put a 3 year course in place, trying to establish more formal curriculum/education into the nursing program. This is the first time in a long time that nursing is seen as an education.
This was a turning point in getting us where we need to be.


First undergraduate program in Canada?

1919 at university of British Columbia


What did the Alberta Taskforce on nursing education decide in 1975?

All registered nurses should have university degrees.


First doctoral nursing program?

1991 at university of Alberta.


What level of degree do you need to practice as an RN in Canada?



Define theory

Provides a systematic view for explaining, predicting, and prescribing phenomena.


What is nursing theory?

It is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing.
It communicates the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and/or prescribing nursing care.
Remember - a conceptual framework is different than a theory.


What is a phenomenon?

An aspect of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced; nursing concepts and theories represent the theoretical approach to making sense of aspects of reality of concern to nursing..
ex: pain


What is a concept?

A mental formulation of objects or events, representing the basic way in which ideas are organized and communicated
ex: anxiety


What is an operational definition?

A description of concepts, articulated in such a way that they can be applied to decision making in practice. It links concepts with other concepts and with theories, and it often includes the essential properties and distinguishing features of a concept.
ex: differentiation and measurement of state and trait anxiety


What is an assumption?

A description of concepts or connection of two concepts that are accepted as factual or true; includes "taken for granted" ideas about the nature and purpose of concepts, as well as the structure of theory.
ex: "nursing exists to serve a social mandate"


what is a proposition?

A declarative assertion.
ex: "clients who receive appropriate nursing care have better health outcomes"


what is a theoretical model?

mental representation of how things work. For example, an architect's plan for a house is not the house itself but rather the set of information necessary to understand how all of the building elements will be brought together to create that particular house.
ex: biopsychosocial model of health


what is a conceptual framework?

The theoretical structure that links concepts together for a specific purpose. When its purpose is to show how something works, it can also be described as a theoretical model. Nursing conceptual frameworks link major nursing concepts and phenomena to direct nursing decisions (e.g., what to assess, how to make sense of data, what to plan, how to enact a plan, and how to evaluate whether the plan has had the intended outcome). Conceptual frameworks are also often referred to as nursing models or nursing theories.


What is a grand theory?

Global, conceptual framework, extremely abstract; nursing science as a whole - on a grand scale. Very broad; sometimes called paradigms.


What is middle-range theory?

Less abstract than grand theory - address specific phenomena or concepts, and reflect practice; tend to cross different nursing fields and reflect a variety of nursing care situations.


What is descriptive theory?

Describes phenomena, speculates on why phenomena occur, and describes conseuqences of it. - About a class of nursing phenomena in general.


What is a prescriptive theory?

Addresses specific nursing interventions. Action oriented - test validity and predictability of a nursing intervention.
These theories guide nursing research to develop and test specific nursing interventions.
Practicing nurses love these theories.


what are the major theoretical models? (5)

Practice-based theories
Needs theories
Interactionist theories
Systems theories
Simultaneity theories


what are the metaparadigm concepts? (4)

Client and person


Client and person

always the whole person, holistic view of the person. Also individual and community, (whole community or family as a patient)



we all interact with an environment, but they are all very different. Environment is very individualized but has a huge impact on your health needs



health is not just the absence of disease. Means you are living the best life that you can. Optimal health, to which all people can strive.



understands the interaction of this metaparadigm