What was the role of continuo bass? What instruments?
Provided harmonic support. Usually harpsichord or organ or cello.
Describe a baroque orchestra.
Had violin 1, violin 2, viola and cello or double bass. Wind was optional. Continuo bass.
When was brass with valves first used?
Early 19th century.
Describe classical orchestra.
2 each of flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassoons. 2/4 horns and 2 trumpets. 4 part strings. Timpani.
What was patronage?
When composers were funded by the wealthy, royalty or church. Used court orchestras.
What was a result of the Age of Enlightenment?
Increased interest in music for middle class and demand for concerts.
What was style galante or rococo period?
1720-1770. Simpler compositions, distinctions between melody and accompaniment. Tonic and dominant harmonies.
What was sturm und drang?
Means storm and stress. Popular in 1770s. Contrasts in register and dynamics. Intense emotions. Exciting orchestral effects. Instability of key.
What was empfindsamer stil?
Means tender, sensitive style. Similar to style galante but less ornamentation. Appoggiaturas, sigh figures, chromaticism.
What did symphonies develop from?
Baroque music- sinfonias. Opera overtures.
What is the significance of Mannheim?
Place where court orchestra became famous.
Who was Stamitz? What are his dates?
1717-1757. Composer and leader of Mannheim orchestra. Favoured 4 mvt symphony and helped development of sonata form.
Give features of Stamitz/Mannheim music.
Rhythmic drive and energy. Orchestral tuttis. Accents, crescendo and diminuendo.
What is a Mannheim crescendo?
A crescendo for whole orchestra.
What is a Mannheim rocket?
Rising passage based on arpeggio with crescendo.
What is a Mannheim sigh?
Slurred pair of notes with emphasis on first note.
What is Mannheim birds?
Writing for solo instruments that sounded like birds.
What are Hayden’s dates?
Who did Haydn influence?
What is Haydn’s nickname and why?
Father of the symphony because he shaped it to be what we hear today.
When was his key development of the symphony?
What were Hayden’s Paris symphonies?
Six symphonies in 1785-86. Consolidated sturm und drang style.
What were Hayden’s London symphonies?
12 symphonies in 1791-95. Commissioned by Salomon- brought Haydn to England. Standards for classical period.
How did Haydn develop structure?
Movement 1- sonata form.
Movement 2- slow, sometimes binary.
Movement 3- minuet and trio.
Movement 4- sometimes sonata rondo form.
What does ritornello mean?
Structure used for large-scale movements in late Baroque period. Opening instrumental section called ritornello (introduces main ideas) followed by contrasting textures.
What are Mozart’s dates?
How many symphonies did Mozart write?
What could be said about Mozart’s Symphony No.38 ‘Prague’ in D major?
Only three movements, all in sonata form. First uses something similar to ritornello structure.
By what were Mozart’s last three symphonies influenced by? Why?
Haydn’s Paris symphonies because greater orchestral works.
What does ritornello mean?
Structure used for late Baroque music. Opening instrumental section introduces main ideas, then contrasting texture section.
Describe Mozart’s melodies when compared to Haydn’s.
Mozart’s are more lyrical and rhythms more complex, e.g cross-accented hemiola.
Compare Haydn and Mozart harmony.
Mozart was less adventurous but more chromatic. He filled out the inner parts more.
What’s interesting about Mozart’s use of texture?
It is quite complex, there are many fugal and contrapuntal passages. E.g. in finale of ‘Jupiter’ there are five subjects.
What are Beethoven’s dates?
How did Beethoven change the structure of the symphony?
Changed minuet to scherzo.
What did Beethoven’s melodies comprise of?
How did Beethoven pave the way to the Romantic period?
Didn’t really change symphony structure or sonata form, just expanded it.
Beethoven’s compositional style can be split into how many parts? Give an example of the first type.
3 sections. Symphony No.1 in C major (1765).
Give example of Beethoven’s middle section.
Symphonies 2-8, e.g. Eroica (no 3) 1803.
How is Eroica significant?
Very extended, double length of other classical symphonies.
How were Beethoven’s middle symphonies different?
Greater in length, expanded. More dramatic and had personal quality. Slowed down rate of harmonic change. Orchestra increased in size. More energy. Manipulation of themes went on for longer.
What was Beethoven’s last symphony? How was it different?
Symphony No.9. Extremely broad, largest orchestra he’d used. Movement 4 features SATB and four soloists.
What are some things that Beethoven is remembered for?
Contrasting dynamics, adventurous harmony and dissonance, rhythmic ideas (syncopation, accents) and musical figuration.