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GRE Psychology- Kaplan Sixth Edition > Developmental Psych > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developmental Psych Deck (87):
1

Mary Ainsworth

Devised the "strange situation" paradigm to study attachment styles

2

Baumrind

Studied the relationship between parental style and discipline: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive

3

Bowlby

Studied attachment in human children by studying kids who grew up in foster homes/ orphanages. Kids tend to be timid/ asocial. Identified stages of the attachment process

4

Chomsky

Linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition (nativist); studied transformational grammar, focusing on syntactic transformations (changes in word order that differ with meaning).

5

Erik Erickson

Outlined eight stages of psychosocial development saying that development is a sequence of central life crises, emphasizes emotional development and interactions with the social environment; thought that development occurred through the resolution of conflicts covering the entire lifespan

6

Freud

Outlined five stages of psychosexual development; stressed the importance of the oedipal conflict in psychosexual development. Charted personality and emotional growth over the lifetime. Thought psychology and sexuality were inextricably linked

7

Gesell

Believed that development was primarily due to maturation

8

Gilligan

Suggested that males and females have different orientations toward morality

9

G. Stanley Hall

The founder of developmental psychology

10

Harlow

Used monkeys and "surrogate mothers" to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation

11

Kagan

conducted landmark longitudinal study to examine development trajectories of children's temperament; temperament as a strong predictor of adult behaviors

12

Kohlberg

Studied moral development using "Heinz Dilemmas" (moral dilemmas)

13

Locke

British philosopher who suggested that infants had no predetermined tendencies, that they were blank slates (tabulas rasa) to be written on by experience

14

Lorenz

Studied imprinting in birds

15

Piaget

Outlined four stages of cognitive development

16

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

French philosopher who suggested that development could unfold without help from society, stated society was actually a detriment to development

17

Terman

Performed longitudinal study on gifted children

18

Tryon

Studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats. "Maze-dull" vs "Maze-bright." Selective breeding only made a difference on the particular paradigm he was running. Not "overall more intelligent"

19

Vygotsky

Studied cultural influence on cognitive development, said development is driven by a child's internalization of aspects of their culture (i.e. rules, symbols, language, etc.) ; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development.

20

Empricists

believe all knowledge is gained through life experience.

21

John Watson

Empiricist/ behaviorist; thought emotion and thought were acquired through learning; also thought only useful methods of study were those of observing objective behaviors

22

Nativists

believe development is biologically based and that a "blueprint" exists from birth

23

Psychodynamic orientation

Stress the role of the subconscious conflict in development of functioning and personality (think Freud)

24

Cognitive Structuralists

believe children are actively involved in their own development, constructing knowledge of the world through their experiences with the environment (think Piaget)

25

Gregor Mendel

Studied genes/ alleles/ heredity in pea plants (think punnet squares)

26

Genotype

total genetic complement/ makeup

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Phenotype

total collection of expressed traits that constitute an individuals observable characteristics

28

Gene words

Chromosomes = DNA + proteins; 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs; somatic cells are diploid, germ cells are haploid

29

Research Methods on Heredity

Family studies: con is that you can't rule out environmental effects, twin studies: MZ (100%) or DZ (50%) twins studied, good because they are genetically similar, but again may share environment, adoption/ twin studies: are the best when done with MZ twins because they are genetically identical but have distinguishable environments

30

Downs Syndrome

genetic anomaly with extra 21st chromosome

31

PKU

degenerative disease of the N.S. lacking an amino acid, can avoid deleterious effects with strict diet

32

Klinefelter's syndrome

Extra X chromosome in males (XXY), males with this are sterile and often have intellectual disabilities

33

Turner's Syndrome

Females with only one X chromosome (X0), females with this fail to develop secondary sex characteristics and often have short fingers and odd shaped mouths

34

Zygote

a single, fertilized egg which will divide into two (and continues to divide)

35

Development stages in utero

Germinal period: lasts ~ two weeks from conception, zygote travels down fallopian tube and gets implanted into the uteran wall. Embryonic stage: lasts the next 8 weeks, the embryo increases in size by 2 Mil %, grows to about one inch long. Limbs appear, tail recedes, nerve cells are forming, etc. Fetal period: Begins in third month with measurable activity in fetus' brain.

36

Rooting reflex

Infants automatically turn heads in direction of stimuli applied to cheek

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Moro reflex

Infants react to abrupt movements of their heads by flinging out their arms, extending their fingers, bringing arms back in to hug themselves (usually disappears after 4-5 months old)

38

Babinski reflex

infants toes spread when soles of feet are stimulated

39

Grasping reflex

Infants automatically close fingers around objects placed in their hands

40

Schemata

Piaget says infants learn from interacting with their environment through reflexive behaviors. Organized patterns of behavior and thought are called schemata. Infants have behavioral schemata and older kids have operational schemata (more abstract)

41

Adaption

Occurs through assimilation and accommodation

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Assimilation

The process of interpreting new information in terms of existing schema

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Accommodation

The process of modifying a schema to adapt to new information that doesn't fit into any existing schema

44

Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

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Sensorimotor stage of cognitive development

Birth- 2 years; primary and secondary circular reactions and object permanence forms

46

Primary circular reactions

Infant begins to coordinate separate aspects of movement; goal-oriented behavior; restricted to motions concerned with the body

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Secondary circular reactions

Directed toward the manipulation of objects in the environment

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Object permanence

occurs when a child realizes an object continues to exist even when they cannot perceive its existence (see it). The beginning of representational thought

49

Pre-Operational stage of cognitive development

2-7 Years; children have the capacity to understand the concept that objects continue to exist, even though they cannot see them, and centration, egocentrism, and conservation

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Centration

The tendency to be able to focus on any one aspect of a phenomenon

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Egocentrism

Cannot take on the perspective of other people and cannot understand relationships as reciprocal

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Conservation

The notion that physical properties of matter (i.e. volume, quantity) do not change just because the appearance of the matter changes

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Concrete Operational stage of cognitive development

7-11 Years: Child masters conservation and take perspective of others into account; still have trouble with abstract thought

54

Formal Operational stage of cognitive development

11- Onward: Can "think like a scientist" by making hypotheses and deductions. Understand abstract thought.

55

Piaget on language

Thought that stages of development of thought directed the development of language

56

Zone of proximal development

Refers to those skills and abilities that have not fully developed, but are in the process of developing. Child needs guidance to demonstrate these skills. (How much they improve with guidance = the zone)

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Four basic components of language

Phonology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics

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Categorical perception of language

The ability to distinguish between differences in sound that do not denote differences in meaning versus those differences in sound that do denote differences in meaning.

59

Phonology

think phoneme; the actual sound stem of language

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Semantics

Learning of word meanings

61

Syntax

How words are put together to form sentences

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Pragmatics

The actual efficient use of language

63

Lenneberg, Rebelsky, and Nichols (1965)

Study on babbling; it began at the same age for hearing and deaf children with hearing and deaf parents; but hearing kids keep babbling after a few months

64

Holophrasis/ Holophrase

When a child uses one single word to express a thought

65

Errors of Growth

Overregulation- generalizing some internalized rule (e.g. I runned), suggests that language acquisition may not be imitation and reinforcement, but the active application of dynamic linguistic rules

66

Language acquisition device (LAD)

Innate capacity for language acquisition; thought to be triggered when exposed to language; allows babies to listen and process sounds

67

Critical vs. sensitive periods for language acquisition

Nativists thought that there was a critical period for language acquisition from 2 y.o. until puberty. Thought that if a kid wasn't exposed to language until after that time, they wouldn't learn it.

Sensitive periods are more likely than critical. It's the time when environmental input has maximal effect on development of an ability. (e.g. Genie the child who didn't have much human contact. Could learn some stuff, but not master any of it)

68

Libido

Freud thinks this is present since birth; thinks that libidinal energy, and the drive to reduce it, are the underlying forces that accounted for physiological processes

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Freud's stages of psychosexual development

Oral (0-1 year), Anal (1-3 years), Phallic (Oedipal/ Electra) (3-5 years), Latency (5-puberty), Genital (puberty-adulthood)

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Oral

libidinal energy centered around the mouth; fixation can lead to excessive dependency

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Anal

Toilet training occurs during this time; fixation can lead to excessive orderliness or messiness

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Phallic (Oedipal)

Oedipal conflict resolved during this time;

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Latency

Libido is largely sublimated

74

Genital

If previous stages have been successfully resolved, person will enter normal heterosexual relationships

75

Erickson's stages of psychosocial conflicts

1) trust v mistrust during 1st year of life; 2) autonomy v shame during 1-3 y; 3) Initiative v guild from 3-6 y; 4) Industry v inferiority from 6-12 y; 5) identity v role confusion during adolescence; 6) intimacy v isolation in young adulthood; 7) generativity v stagnation during middle age; 8) Integrity v despair in old age

76

Thomas and Chess

Performed studies on temperament in kids; identified three categories of infant style: easy, slow to warm up, and difficult

77

Research methods on temperament

1) parental reports of child's behavior
2) Observation in naturalistic settings (at home)
3) Observations in laboratory settings

78

Peter Wolff

Studied crying in newborns using spectrograms. Found three styles of crying: the basic cry, which usually associated with hunger, the angry cry, which is usually associated with frustration, and the pain cry. Adults (even non-parents) physiologically respond to pain cries. Infants learn that adults respond to their crying

79

Social smiling

Infants smiling associated with facelike patterns. At first, any face illicits smiles, but around five months old, only familiar faces will

80

Fear responses

Follows a developmental course from undifferentiated to increasingly specific. At first, evoked through sudden changes in level of stimulation. Changes eventually to separation/ stranger anxiety. Then specifies to the sudden absence of a specific individual (i.e. the mother).

81

Bowlby's stages of attachment

Pre-attachment (birth- couple months), discriminating between familiar and unfamiliar faces (3 mos), infant responding to mother, bond intensifies, stranger anxiety develops (9-12 mos), child protests mom's absence, stranger anxiety (year 2), able to separate without distress (year 3)

82

Ainsworth attachment styles

insecure/ avoidant (type a): distressed with stranger and avoids mother upon return
secure (type b): mildly distressed during separations but greet mom positively upon return
insecure/ resistant (type c): distressed with stranger and inclined to resist physical contact with mother upon return

83

Kohlberg's phases of moral development

Pre conventional (punishment and obedience and instrumental relativist stage), conventional morality (good girl nice boy and law and order), Post conventional morality (social contract orientation and universal ethical principles)

84

Pre conventional morality

right and wrong are defined by hedonistic consequences of an action (punishment or reward)
Split into: punishment and obedience and instrumental relativist stage (reciprocity)

85

Conventional morality

Based on social rules. Split into: "good girl, nice boy" seeking others approval and law-and-order orientation where morality is defined by rules

86

Post conventional morality

Split into: social construct orientation where morals are designed to ensure the greater good and universal ethical principles

87

Gender schematic processing theory

Martin and Halverson; as soon as kids are able to label themselves, they begin concentrating on those behaviors that seem to be associated with their gender and pay less attention to those they believe are associated with the opposite gender