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GRE Psychology- Kaplan Sixth Edition > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (86):
1

Beck

Cognitive behavior therapist known for his therapy for depression

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Blueler

Coined the term schizophrenia

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Dorothea Dix

19th century American advocate of asylum reform

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Ellis

Cognitive behavior therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)

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Freud

Developed psychoanalysis

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Emil Kraepelin

Developed system in 19th century for classifying mental disorders; DSM-5 can be considered to be a descendant of this system

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Philippe Pinel

Reformed french asylums in the 18th century, "removing the shackles"

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Rogers

Developed client-centered therapy, a therapy that was based upon the concept of unconditional positive regard

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Rosenhan

Investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudo-patients admitted into mental hospitals

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Seligman

Formulated learned helplessness theory of depression; did the study in 1960's with dogs in the cell with high walls, administered shock to the floor of the cell. later dogs stopped jumping bc they were unable to escape the cell. Later when the walls were lowered, dogs still wouldn't jump in attempt to escape.

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Szasz

Suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not really mental disorders; wrote The Myth of Mental Illness

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William Sheldon

Early theory of personality defined by physical/ biological variables that he related to human behaviors; characterized people by body type (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy), relating body types (somatotypes) to personality types.

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endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy

endo: soft and spherical
meso: hard,muscular, and rectangular
ecto: thing, fragile and lightly muscled

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E.G. Boring

suggested that development of psychology was due to Zeitgeist or the changing spirit of times

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Edward Titchener

Method of introspection, which formed the system of psychology called structuralism

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Humanism system of psychology

developed in the mid-20th century in opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanists believe in the notion of free will and the idea that people should be considered as wholes rather than in terms of SR (behaviorism) or instincts (psychoanalysis).

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Humanists

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

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General Paresis

in 19th century classified as a disorder characterized by delusions of grandeur, mental deterioration, eventual paralysis, and death. was eventually discovered that this was due to brain deterioration caused by syphilis. Idea that physiological factors could underlie mental disorders was an important advance

19

Cerletti and Bini (1938)

introduced the use of the electroshock for the artificial production of convulsive seizures in psychiatric patients (thought these could cure schizophrenia)

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Prefrontal lobotomies

were used to fix schizophrenia, this type of "treatment" severed prefrontal loves from brain tissue, also destroyed parts of the frontal lobe (part of our brain that makes us US/ distinctly human)

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antipsychotic drugs

introduced in the 1950's to treat schizophrenia, changed the atmosphere in psychiatric hospitals. was a breakthrough for many "incurable" patients

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psychodynamic and psychoanallytic theory

postualte the existence of unconscious internal states taht motivate the overt actions of individuals and determine personality

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Freud's three major systems of personality

id, ego, superego

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id

the reservoir of all psychic energy, consists of everything psychological that is present at birth. Functions according to the pleasure principle, whose aim is to immediately discharge any energy buildup. Primary process is "obtain satisfaction now, not later"

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ego

operates to the reality principle, taking into account objective reality as it guides or inhibits the activity of the id. Role is to postpone the pleasure principle until the actual object that will satisfy the need has been discovered or produced. Ego's functioning suspends the working of the id; functioning of ego and secondary processing creates perception, memory, problem solving, thinking, and reality testing.

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Superego

represents the moral branch of personality, striving for perfection. Two subsystems of the superego: the conscience and the ego-idea. conscience provides rules and norms about what is bad behavior, ego-ideal provides rules for good behavior

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instinct

innate psychological representation (wish) of a bodily (biological) excitation (need). Two instincts: life and death (sometimes called Eros and Thanatos), life serves purpose of survival and death represents an unconscious wish for the ultimate, absolute state of quiescence

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Defense mechanisms

all defense mechanisms 1) deny, falsify, or distort reality, and 2) operate unconsciously; 8 types: repression, suppression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, regression, sublimation, and displacement.

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Repression

the unconscious forgetting of anxiety-producing memories

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Suppression

is more deliberate, conscious form of forgetting

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Projection

when a person attributes his forbidden urges to others (e.g. I hate my uncle turns into my uncle hates me)

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Reaction Formation

a repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite (e.g. a boy who hates his brother and is punished for his hostile acts may turn his feelings into the opposite, now he showers his brother with affection)

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Rationalization

the process of developing a socially acceptable explanation for inappropriate behavior or thoughts

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Regression

a person reverting to an earlier stage of development in response to a traumatic event

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Sublimation

transforming unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors

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Displacement

pent-up feelings (often hostility) are discharged on object and people less dangerous than those objects or people causing the feelings

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Carl Jung

fit into psychoanalytic theory, however viewed libido as psychic energy in general (not just that rooted in sexuality like Freud); split the unconscious into two- the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious (which is a system shared among all humans and considered to be a residue of the experiences of our early ancestors)

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Jungian archetypes

archetypes are thoughts or images that have emotional elements: the persona, the anima and animus, the shadow, and the self

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Persona

mask adopted by a person in response to the demands of social convention; originates from social interactions in which a social role has served a useful purpose to humankind throughout history

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Anima (fem) and Animus (masc)

help us to understand gender, the fem behaviors in males and masculine in females

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Shadow

animal instincts that humans inherited in their evolution from lower forms of life; e.g. unpleasant and socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings, and actions

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Self archetype

person's striving for unity, the point of intersection between the collective unconscious and the conscious

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Alfred Adler

psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of inferiority complex

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Gordon Allport

Listed three basic types of traits or dispositions: cardinal, central, and secondary. Trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality

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Bandura

Behaviorist theorist known for social learning theory; bobo doll. Vicarious learning/ vicarious reinforcement

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Sandra Bem

suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny as being both very masculine and very feminine

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Raymond Cattell

trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality (attempted to account for underlying factors that determined personality. Identified 16 basic traits, or relatively permanent reaction tendencies in individuals, that constitute building blocks of personality

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Dollard and Miller

Behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework; known for work on approach-avoidance conflicts in development of personality

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Hans Eysenck

Trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability- neurotocism. later added psychoticism.

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Freud, A.

Anna Freud is Sigmund's daughter: Founder of ego psychology focusing more on the conscious ego and its relation to the world and other personality systems

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Freud, S.

Originator of the psychodynamic approach to personality

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Horney

Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others with regard to basic anxiety: moving toward (to obtain the good will of people who provide security), moving against (fighting them to obtain the upper hand), and moving away from (withdrawing);

identified that neurotic personality is governed by one of 10 needs, and that their needs are similar to healthy peoples, but are disproportionate in intensity, indiscriminate in application, partially disregard reality, and have a tendency to provoke intense anxiety.

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George Kelly

Based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist," person who devises an tests predictions about behavior of people in their life.

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Kerberg

object relations theorist

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Klein

object relations theorist

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Kurt Lewin

Phenomenological (Humanist) personality theorist who developed field theory; sees personality as dynamic and constantly changing , personality can be divided up dynamically into ever-changing "systems."

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Mahler

object relations theorist

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Abraham Maslow

Phenomenological (humanist) personality theorist known for developing a hierarchy of needs and the concept of self-actualization where self-actualized people are more likely to have "peak experiences": profound and deeply moving experiences in a person's life that have important and lasting effects on the individual

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David McClelland

Studied need for achievement (N-Ach); high N-Ach will avoid high risk (to avoid failure) and avoid low risk (bc they still need some satisfaction of achieving)

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Walter Mischel

Critic of trait theories of personality, believes human behavior is largely determined by characteristics of the situation rather than by those of the person

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Carl Rogers

Phenomenological (humanistic) personality theorist; "client-centered therapy, person-centered therapy, or nondirective therapy." Believed people had freedom to control their own behavior. Utilizes "unconditional positive regard" and understanding to help clients because the "ideal self"

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Julian Rotter

Studied internal and external locus of control; internal tend to believe that they can control their own destiny, external believe that outside events and chance control their destiny. Locus of control and self-esteem are related.

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Skinner

behaviorist

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Winnicott

Object relations theorist

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Herman Witkin

Wanted to draw relationship between personality and perception of the world. Studied field dependence (diffuse response to a perceived mass of undifferentiated stimuli) and field independence (making specific responses to perceived specific stimuli) using the rod-and-frame test

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object relations theory

falls under psychodynamic theories of personality; here object refers to the symbolic representation of a significant part of the young child's personality; look at the creation and development of these internalized objects in young children

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Psychoanalytic techniques

hypnosis, free association, dream interpretation, resistance transference (involves attributing the therapists attitudes and feelings that developed in the patient's relations with significant others in the past), counter-transference.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Tries to change and restructure patient's distorted and/or irrational thoughts. (e.g. Beck on depression and Ellis rational-emotive therapy)

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Rational-emotive therapy (RET)

Ellis- people develop irrational ways of thinking, the therapist might challenge an irrational believe that the client has, helping them to recognize the belief and change them to more rational ones

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difference between behaviorists and psychoanalysts in treatmetn

in contrast to behaviorists, psychoanalysts do not believe that symptom relief is adequate therapy, because the underlying cause is still there so they think they will develop new symptoms to replace the old ones (symptom substitution)

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Humanism

or phenomenological psychologists who emphasize internal processes rather than overt behavior, study that which distinguishes us from animals

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humanistic-existential therapies

emphasize the process of finding meaning in one's life by making one's own choices

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Type theorists v trait theorists

type: attempt to characterize people according to specific types of personality; trait attempt to ascertain the fundamental dimensions of personality

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Type A v Type B

A: competitive and compulsive; b: laid-back and relaxed

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Functional autonomy

Allport- a given activity or form of behavior may become an end or goal in itself, regardless for its original reason for existence

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Idiographic v nomothetic approach to personality

idiographic focuses on individual case studies, nomothetic focuses on groups of individuals and ties to find commonalities between individuals. Allport thinks people should avoid nomothetic approach. (later used morphogenic for idiographic and dimensional for nomothetic)

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Machiavellianism

manipulative and deceitful

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schools of psychology

structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology, cognitivism, psychoanalysis, humanism, systems psychology

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structuralism

titchener: breaks consciousness into elements by using introspection

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functionalism

James, Dewey: stream of consciousness, studies how mind functions to help people adapt to environment, attacked structuralism

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behaviorism

Watson, Skinner: psychology as objective study of behavior; attacked mentalism and the use of introspection; attacked structuralism and functionalism

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Gestalt psychology

Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka: whole is something other than the sum of its parts; attacked structuralism and behaviorism

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Cognitivism

Chomsky: behaviorism is not an adequate explanation for human behavior; humans think, believe, are creative

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Psychoanalysis

Freud S, Jung, Adler: behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, repression, defense mechanisms

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Humanism

Maslow, Rogers: looks at people as wholes; humans have free will; psychologists should study mentally healthy people, not just healthy well adjusted ones

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Systems Psychology

Barker, Bateson: Human behavior must be considered within the context of complex systems. applications include organizational psychology and family therapy