Flashcards in Personality Deck (86):
Cognitive behavior therapist known for his therapy for depression
Coined the term schizophrenia
19th century American advocate of asylum reform
Cognitive behavior therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Developed system in 19th century for classifying mental disorders; DSM-5 can be considered to be a descendant of this system
Reformed french asylums in the 18th century, "removing the shackles"
Developed client-centered therapy, a therapy that was based upon the concept of unconditional positive regard
Investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudo-patients admitted into mental hospitals
Formulated learned helplessness theory of depression; did the study in 1960's with dogs in the cell with high walls, administered shock to the floor of the cell. later dogs stopped jumping bc they were unable to escape the cell. Later when the walls were lowered, dogs still wouldn't jump in attempt to escape.
Suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not really mental disorders; wrote The Myth of Mental Illness
Early theory of personality defined by physical/ biological variables that he related to human behaviors; characterized people by body type (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy), relating body types (somatotypes) to personality types.
endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy
endo: soft and spherical
meso: hard,muscular, and rectangular
ecto: thing, fragile and lightly muscled
suggested that development of psychology was due to Zeitgeist or the changing spirit of times
Method of introspection, which formed the system of psychology called structuralism
Humanism system of psychology
developed in the mid-20th century in opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanists believe in the notion of free will and the idea that people should be considered as wholes rather than in terms of SR (behaviorism) or instincts (psychoanalysis).
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
in 19th century classified as a disorder characterized by delusions of grandeur, mental deterioration, eventual paralysis, and death. was eventually discovered that this was due to brain deterioration caused by syphilis. Idea that physiological factors could underlie mental disorders was an important advance
Cerletti and Bini (1938)
introduced the use of the electroshock for the artificial production of convulsive seizures in psychiatric patients (thought these could cure schizophrenia)
were used to fix schizophrenia, this type of "treatment" severed prefrontal loves from brain tissue, also destroyed parts of the frontal lobe (part of our brain that makes us US/ distinctly human)
introduced in the 1950's to treat schizophrenia, changed the atmosphere in psychiatric hospitals. was a breakthrough for many "incurable" patients
psychodynamic and psychoanallytic theory
postualte the existence of unconscious internal states taht motivate the overt actions of individuals and determine personality
Freud's three major systems of personality
id, ego, superego
the reservoir of all psychic energy, consists of everything psychological that is present at birth. Functions according to the pleasure principle, whose aim is to immediately discharge any energy buildup. Primary process is "obtain satisfaction now, not later"
operates to the reality principle, taking into account objective reality as it guides or inhibits the activity of the id. Role is to postpone the pleasure principle until the actual object that will satisfy the need has been discovered or produced. Ego's functioning suspends the working of the id; functioning of ego and secondary processing creates perception, memory, problem solving, thinking, and reality testing.
represents the moral branch of personality, striving for perfection. Two subsystems of the superego: the conscience and the ego-idea. conscience provides rules and norms about what is bad behavior, ego-ideal provides rules for good behavior
innate psychological representation (wish) of a bodily (biological) excitation (need). Two instincts: life and death (sometimes called Eros and Thanatos), life serves purpose of survival and death represents an unconscious wish for the ultimate, absolute state of quiescence
all defense mechanisms 1) deny, falsify, or distort reality, and 2) operate unconsciously; 8 types: repression, suppression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, regression, sublimation, and displacement.
the unconscious forgetting of anxiety-producing memories
is more deliberate, conscious form of forgetting
when a person attributes his forbidden urges to others (e.g. I hate my uncle turns into my uncle hates me)
a repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite (e.g. a boy who hates his brother and is punished for his hostile acts may turn his feelings into the opposite, now he showers his brother with affection)
the process of developing a socially acceptable explanation for inappropriate behavior or thoughts
a person reverting to an earlier stage of development in response to a traumatic event
transforming unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors
pent-up feelings (often hostility) are discharged on object and people less dangerous than those objects or people causing the feelings
fit into psychoanalytic theory, however viewed libido as psychic energy in general (not just that rooted in sexuality like Freud); split the unconscious into two- the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious (which is a system shared among all humans and considered to be a residue of the experiences of our early ancestors)
archetypes are thoughts or images that have emotional elements: the persona, the anima and animus, the shadow, and the self
mask adopted by a person in response to the demands of social convention; originates from social interactions in which a social role has served a useful purpose to humankind throughout history
Anima (fem) and Animus (masc)
help us to understand gender, the fem behaviors in males and masculine in females
animal instincts that humans inherited in their evolution from lower forms of life; e.g. unpleasant and socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings, and actions
person's striving for unity, the point of intersection between the collective unconscious and the conscious
psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of inferiority complex
Listed three basic types of traits or dispositions: cardinal, central, and secondary. Trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality
Behaviorist theorist known for social learning theory; bobo doll. Vicarious learning/ vicarious reinforcement
suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny as being both very masculine and very feminine
trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality (attempted to account for underlying factors that determined personality. Identified 16 basic traits, or relatively permanent reaction tendencies in individuals, that constitute building blocks of personality
Dollard and Miller
Behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework; known for work on approach-avoidance conflicts in development of personality
Trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability- neurotocism. later added psychoticism.
Anna Freud is Sigmund's daughter: Founder of ego psychology focusing more on the conscious ego and its relation to the world and other personality systems
Originator of the psychodynamic approach to personality
Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others with regard to basic anxiety: moving toward (to obtain the good will of people who provide security), moving against (fighting them to obtain the upper hand), and moving away from (withdrawing);
identified that neurotic personality is governed by one of 10 needs, and that their needs are similar to healthy peoples, but are disproportionate in intensity, indiscriminate in application, partially disregard reality, and have a tendency to provoke intense anxiety.
Based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist," person who devises an tests predictions about behavior of people in their life.
object relations theorist
object relations theorist
Phenomenological (Humanist) personality theorist who developed field theory; sees personality as dynamic and constantly changing , personality can be divided up dynamically into ever-changing "systems."
object relations theorist
Phenomenological (humanist) personality theorist known for developing a hierarchy of needs and the concept of self-actualization where self-actualized people are more likely to have "peak experiences": profound and deeply moving experiences in a person's life that have important and lasting effects on the individual
Studied need for achievement (N-Ach); high N-Ach will avoid high risk (to avoid failure) and avoid low risk (bc they still need some satisfaction of achieving)
Critic of trait theories of personality, believes human behavior is largely determined by characteristics of the situation rather than by those of the person
Phenomenological (humanistic) personality theorist; "client-centered therapy, person-centered therapy, or nondirective therapy." Believed people had freedom to control their own behavior. Utilizes "unconditional positive regard" and understanding to help clients because the "ideal self"
Studied internal and external locus of control; internal tend to believe that they can control their own destiny, external believe that outside events and chance control their destiny. Locus of control and self-esteem are related.
Object relations theorist
Wanted to draw relationship between personality and perception of the world. Studied field dependence (diffuse response to a perceived mass of undifferentiated stimuli) and field independence (making specific responses to perceived specific stimuli) using the rod-and-frame test
object relations theory
falls under psychodynamic theories of personality; here object refers to the symbolic representation of a significant part of the young child's personality; look at the creation and development of these internalized objects in young children
hypnosis, free association, dream interpretation, resistance transference (involves attributing the therapists attitudes and feelings that developed in the patient's relations with significant others in the past), counter-transference.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Tries to change and restructure patient's distorted and/or irrational thoughts. (e.g. Beck on depression and Ellis rational-emotive therapy)
Rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Ellis- people develop irrational ways of thinking, the therapist might challenge an irrational believe that the client has, helping them to recognize the belief and change them to more rational ones
difference between behaviorists and psychoanalysts in treatmetn
in contrast to behaviorists, psychoanalysts do not believe that symptom relief is adequate therapy, because the underlying cause is still there so they think they will develop new symptoms to replace the old ones (symptom substitution)
or phenomenological psychologists who emphasize internal processes rather than overt behavior, study that which distinguishes us from animals
emphasize the process of finding meaning in one's life by making one's own choices
Type theorists v trait theorists
type: attempt to characterize people according to specific types of personality; trait attempt to ascertain the fundamental dimensions of personality
Type A v Type B
A: competitive and compulsive; b: laid-back and relaxed
Allport- a given activity or form of behavior may become an end or goal in itself, regardless for its original reason for existence
Idiographic v nomothetic approach to personality
idiographic focuses on individual case studies, nomothetic focuses on groups of individuals and ties to find commonalities between individuals. Allport thinks people should avoid nomothetic approach. (later used morphogenic for idiographic and dimensional for nomothetic)
manipulative and deceitful
schools of psychology
structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology, cognitivism, psychoanalysis, humanism, systems psychology
titchener: breaks consciousness into elements by using introspection
James, Dewey: stream of consciousness, studies how mind functions to help people adapt to environment, attacked structuralism
Watson, Skinner: psychology as objective study of behavior; attacked mentalism and the use of introspection; attacked structuralism and functionalism
Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka: whole is something other than the sum of its parts; attacked structuralism and behaviorism
Chomsky: behaviorism is not an adequate explanation for human behavior; humans think, believe, are creative
Freud S, Jung, Adler: behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, repression, defense mechanisms
Maslow, Rogers: looks at people as wholes; humans have free will; psychologists should study mentally healthy people, not just healthy well adjusted ones