T/F: Pneumomediastinum may result in dyspnea
If you see an enlargement in this region, what should your top two differentials be?
Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and Left atrial enlargement
T/F: Ring Shadows (donuts) are often associated with a bronchial pattern
Bronchial pattern: donuts and tram lines
T/F: Hepatic veins have a hyperechoic wall on ultrasound
Hepatic veins have an isoechoic wall
This is a sagittal image of the left kidney. Which side is cranial?
What view would be best for evaluating lesions in the right lung lobes?
In small animals, lung lesions generally are detected best in the non-dependent lung because the "up" lung is better aerated and therefore provides better contrast of lesions
Keep in mind, other lesions (not in the lung) generally are best seen on the "down" side because they are not distorted by magnification
What echocardiographic modality would you use to measure wall thickness during systole and diastole?
Name the MR sequence that nulls signal from free fluid (i.e. CSF):
FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery
Is sternal lymphadenopathy present in this patient?
Note the enlargement of the sternal lymph node
T/F: Ascites is commonly associated with mitral valve insufficiency
That is false
Is the circled lesion more likely in the lung or the mediastinum?
Note the acute angle to the body wall. If the lesion was in the lung you would not have such an acute angle
With which radiographic view is mediastinal shift best visualized?
Doppler measurements should be taken with the patient in ______ lateral recumbency
If you see a "bow-legged cowboy sign" on a DV view, what is your DDx?
left atrial enlargement
Identify the lymphatic structure indicated by the number 3:
T/F: Diaphragmatic hernias cause caudal displacement of the gastric axis
Diaphragmatic hernias cause cranial displacement of the gastric axis
Long-axis left ventricular outflow view.
Identify the structure indicated by the number 2
T/F: An overexposed radiograph is too light
An overexposed radiograph is too dark. Either kVp or mAs is too high.
T/F: If you suspect a lesion in the right lung of a dog, a left lateral thoracic radiograph should be made
What diagnostic imaging modalities might you use if you suspect a diaphragmatic hernia?
Radiographs, Ultrasound, Barium Study
RUB the hernia...
T/F: Atelectasis is associated with normal to increased size of the lung lobe
Atelectasis is associated with decreased size of the lung lobe
Consolidation is associated with normal to increased size of the lung lobe
This presentation is most often associated with _______ insufficiency
Turbulent flow (regurgitation); often bright and a mixture of colors
T/F: Mammary adenocarcinomas are typically associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy
T/F: Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy is an example of a cranioventral disease
Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy is an example of a dorsal disease
T/F: Pneumothorax may progress to pneumomediastinum
Pneumomediastinum may progress to pneumothorax, but not the other way around
When using grids for radiographs, how should you adjust the mAs?
The grid 'intercepts' scatter from patient before it reaches film. You need 2x-3x more photons when grid is used (higher mAs) due to absorption of primary beam by lead
If you suspect a right lung lesion, what radiographic views would you take for the dog? What about a horse?
Dog: R → L
Horse: L → R
Which has better contrast resolution: flat panel or film?
Identify the cardiac abnormality:
T/F: The cranial vena cava is normally visible radiographically in the mediastinum