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Nursing - Semester 2 Baby! > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (30):
1

What is the Loss of fat tissue in areas of repeated injection that results from an immune reaction to impurities in insulin?

Lipoatrophy

 

2

What is an increased swelling of fat that occurs at the site of repeated injections?

Lipohypertrophy

3

What is it when you have a nightime release of growth hormone that causes blood glucose elevations at about 5-6am?

Dawn Phenomenon

4

What is it when a pt has morning hyperglycemia from the counterregulatory response to nightime hypoglycemia?

Somogyi Phenomenon

5

What happens during Type 1 Diabetes?

The pancreas does not produce insulin and leads to a buildup of Glucose

6

What are the signs and symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes?

PPP
Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia

Weight Loss

N/V

Fatigue

Frequent Infections

Slow Healing

Tingling in hands & feet

7

Blood sugar is elevated _________.

Blood sugar is elevated CONSISTENTLY.

8

In depth, What happens when you have an insulin deficiency?

Fat breaks down releasing fatty acids

Conversion of fatty acids to KETONE bodies provides a backup energy source

Because ketones are abnormal breakdowns of fatty acids they collect in the blood when insulin is not available

9

What kind of diet would you suggest for Type 1 diabetes?

Adequate nutrients for growth & development

10

When is the onset usually in Type 1 Diabetes?

Under 30 or Childhood

11

You can give oral hypoglycemics for Type 1 Diabetics.

FALSE

12

What are some considerations to take with Insulin injections?

Avoid giving cold - Vasoconstriction

Don't substitute "brands"

Never leave in car, baggage or compartment of plane

Always have insulin available

Inspect insulin integrity before injecting

Always wear medic-alert band

Regular is ONLY one given IV

Draw up rapid 1st (clear) then Intermediate (cloudy)

13

With a sliding scale, how much insulin would you five for the following BS levels?

100-150

151-200

201-250

251-300

100-150
4 units

151-200
8 Units

201-250
12 Units

251-300
16 Units

14

What happens during Type 2 Diabetes?

The pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or doesn't use it properly

15

Who is at risk for Type 2 diabetes?

Indians

Mexicans

My Husband :)

Obese

Sedentary Lifestyle

Cardiovascular disease

16

What are some signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes?

Blurred vision

Fatigue

PPP

Slow Healing

17

When you do a FSBS, what are some things that can change the results?

Alcohol not being dried

Do not squeeze finger

18

What kind of insulin flows through an insulin pump?

Rapid Acting

19

What are 3 Rapid acting insulins?

NovoLog

Apidra

Humalog

20

What are 3 Short-acting insulins?

Humilin R

Novolin R

ReliOn R

21

What are 6 Intermediate-Acting Insulins?

Humulin N

Novolin N

ReliOn N

Levemir

Novolog Mix

Humalog Mix

22

What do sulfonylureas do?

They stimulate the pancrease to secrete insulin

23

What are 3 examples of sulfonylureas?

Glimepiride

Glipizide

Glyburide

24

What are some side effects of sulfonylureas?

Hypoglycemia

Weight Gain

GI disturbances

25

What do meglitinides do, what are some side effects, and what are two examples?

Target the Pancreas to secrete more insulin

Take 0-30 min before meal

If client doesn't eat DON'T give

SE: 
Hypoglycemia
Weight Gain
Allergic Reactions

Ex:
Prandin
Starlix

26

Biguanides are oral hypoglycemics, what does it do, what are some side effects and teaching?

Targets the liver and blocks it from secreting extra glucose

SE:
GI Upset
Lactic Acidosis
(Hypoglycemia is NOT a SE)

EX:
Meformin (Glucophage)
Metformin XR

27

Thiazolidinedione (TZD) is an oral hypoglycemic, what does it do, what are some side effects and teaching?

Targets the muscles and adipose to inprove insulin sensitivity

SE:
Anemia
Fluid retention
Inc cardiac risks

Teaching:
3 wks til onset of action
12 wks for max effect
DO NOT TAKE w/ CHF or liver dysfunction

EX:
Actos
Avandia

28

What do you want to teach clients that are on oral hypoglycemics about diet?

Decrease Cholesterol

Decrease Sodium

Increase water and soluable fibers

Use sugar substitues

Carb Counting

Alcohol in moderation

Coffee, tea and seasonings can cause inc in glucose

29

What do you want to teach a diabetic about exercise?

Prepare for exercise and exercise regularly

Guidelines of exercise are based on blood glucose levels and urine ketone levels

DONT exercise if ketones are present in the urine

DONT exercise within 1 hour of insulin injection or at peak time of insulin

EAT a CARB containing snack before exercise and always carry a snack to the gym

 

30

What are some diagnositc and lab tests?

FSBS
80-120 Pre-meal

FBS
NPO for 8 hrs - 70-100 ideal

PPBS (Post Prandial Blood Sugar)
Done 2 hours after you START eating meal

GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test)

Ketonuria
Check for ketones in urine

Urine Glucose