Test #7 - HIV/AIDs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #7 - HIV/AIDs Deck (28):
1

What happens during the inflammatory response with HIV?

The body attacks the "foreign" or "non-self" protein

The body's inflammatory response keeps us from getting sick despite exposure (most of the time)

Our body doesn't recognize "self" so it attacks our own proteins and no just foreign proteins

 

2

What is HIV (The human immune deficiency virus)?

It takes over a cell and forces it into making more copies of the virus

Then those cells look for more cells to overtake and change until there are no more new cells to infect

Typically hijacks the CD4 T-Cell
(CD4 T-cell directs the immune systema nd regulates the activity of all immune system cells)

3

HIV is a retrovirus, what is on it's surface and what does that do?

Retrovirus with proteins on its surface which allows it to incorporate its genetic material into the host cell

This feature gives HIV a huge advantage for infecting humans by reproducing suficient viruses to pass the infection along

4

How is HIV transmitted?

Sexual

Parenteral
(Accidental needle sticks)

Perinatal

CAN BE TRANSMITTED TO OTHERS AT ALL STAGES OF THE DISEASE

Most Common infected male to uninfected female

ABC - Abstinence, Be faithful, Condom

5

Who should be tested for HIV?

People with STI's

IV drug users

Anyone who thinks they are at risk/sexually active

Protitutes or their customers

People who received blood transfusions between 1978-1985

Those getting married or admitted tothe hospital

Manifestations of the disease process

Inmates

6

What are some immunity disorders related to HIV?
 

Lymphocytopenia 
(Dec # of lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T-Cell levels)
- A specific type of WBC that builds our antibodies  - May give antibiotics to prevent infection (Neutropenia Isolation)

Increased production of incomplete and nonfunctional antibodies

Abnormally functioning macrophages

7

What are some facts about the HIV progression to AIDS?

Everyone who has AIDS has HIV but not everyone with HIV has AIDS

Progression varies and takes months to years

Progression depends on how HIV was acquired; personal factors such as frequency of re-exposure, the presence of other STI's, nutritional statuse and stress and the interventions used

8

What stage is confirmed HIV, CD4 T-Cell count of >500 cells/mm3 and no AIDS defining the illness?

Stage 1

9

What stage is confirmed HIV, CD4 T-Cell count of <200 cells/mm3 or a higher count and an AIDS defining the illness?

Stage 3 (AIDS)

10

What stage is confirmed HIV, CD4 T-Cell count of 200-499 cells/mm3 and no AIDS defining the illness?

Stage 2

11

What stage is confimed HIV and no other available information?

Stage 4

12

What is required to have a diagnosis of AIDS?

Positive HIV test

One of the following:
- A CD4+ T-Cell count of less than 200 cells/mm3
An opportunistic infection

13

What are opportunistic infections?

Infections caused by organisms that are present as part of the body's normal environment and are kept in check by the body's normal immune function

They occur because of the profound immunosuppression in a person with HIV/AIDs

These infections may result from a newly acquired infection or reactivation of an old infection

14

Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection assoiciated with HIV, it can be protozoan or fungal. What are some S&S?

Dyspnea

Tachypnea

Persistent dry cough

Fever

Fatigue and Weight loss

Crackles heard upon auscultation

15

Kaposi's (KS) is a malignancies opportunistic infection assoiciated with HIV, and is the most common neoplasm in HIV clients.  What are some S&S?

Dark blue/purple/red papue on skin

Mucous membranes in the following:
Mouth

Tongue

Tonsils

Sclera

Conjuctiva

Internal organs

16

Malignant Lymphomas is a malignancies opportunistic infection assoiciated with HIV. Also known as Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin's B-Cell Lymphoma  What are some S&S?

swollen Lymph nodes

night sweats

Weight Loss

Fever

 

INTERVENTIONS: 
Meds (Antipyretic)
Inc calorie/proteins
Small Freq meals
Good Oral Care

17

What are some CMV & Herpes Viruses that are opportunistic infections with HIV?

CMV (Cytomegalovirus)
- Form of Herpes
-May infect eye, respiratory and GI tracts and CNS

Varicella-Zoster 
(Chicken pos/shingles)

Herpes Simplex Virus
- Can infect the brain, liver, lungs, cause blindness, seizures, deafness and death

Some present with subtle cognitive changes: Sweizure, eyesight change, gait)

(They usually feel tingling 24 hours before blisters appear)

 

18

What are some other common infections seen in HIV patients?

Toxoplasmosis

Cryptosporidiosis

histoplasmosis

Fungal Infections (Candida Albicans) - Cottage cheese like plaque

Mycobacterium Avium
(MAC-most common bacterial infection)

TB

AIDS Dementia Complex

19

What are some pharmacology for AIDs (they do not cure)?

Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transriptase inhibitors

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Protease inhibitors

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

Entry Inhibitors

20

HAART is highly active antiretroviral therapy, what is it and what are a couple teachings?

To prevent Drug-resistant mutations

Clients need to be able to be compliant with the medication regimen

Missed doses lead to resistance

If they become resistant to a drug it can NEVER be used again

21

What are some diagnostic tests for HIV?

Lymphocyte counts >1500

Antibody Tests: 
ELISA
Western blot: Confirms dx when lymphocyte is positive

Viral Load

Blood Chemistry: CBC with diff and platelets, liver fx tests

Sputum Culture (Test for TB)

WBC: 5,000-10,000

22

What are some risk factors for HIV?

Born in certain country

Engage in high risk behaviors with the exchange of body fluids

High Risk Behaviors

Not known to be transmitted by:
Mosquitoes, saliva, tears, cough, sneeze, toilet seat, swimming pools or linens

23

What are some community and home care options?

Focus groups

Education and more education to teach how to stop the spread

Use universal precautions

View each client as potentially infected

Porper clean up of a spill with 1:10 bleach to water

24

What assessments would you do for HIV?

Neuro:
AIDs dementia, disturbed thought process, seizures, confusion

Cardiac: 
Acute chest pain, dyspnea, anemia, Inc HR(fever, dehydration), Dysrhythmias (hypokalemia)

Resp:
Persistant dry cough, Pneumonia, dyspnea, SOB

GI/GU:
Weight loss, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea

Skin: 
Dry skin, poor wound healing, skin lesions, night sweats

25

What are some interventions for HIV?

Nutritional support such as small freq meals, increased total calories or protein, NO RAW FOODS, eliminate hot or spiced foods if there are oral lesions

Emotional support

Soft tooth brush

Shower rather than bath

Mild soaps/lotions without ETOH

Eliminate ETOH/street drugs and smoking

26

What is viral load?

Amount of virus found in the blood and tissues

Higher the viral load the easier to transmit

27

TB is a secondary infection that can occur in HIV/AIDS, what are some things you need to know about it in them and to diagnose?

Occurs in 2-10%

Cannot diagnose with PPD

Chest X-Ray

BEST WAY: sputum culture and Acid-fast bacillus test to diagnose

 

28

AIDs Dementia Complex is a secondary infection that can occur in HIV/AIDS, what are some things you need to know about it in them and to diagnose?

Results from HIV infection itself

Virus may indirectly inflame brain cells 

Vary from person to person

Affects 4 diff areas of brain: thinking, behavior, coordination and movement and your mood