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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (35)
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1

Pancreatic Islets

secrete insulin and glucagon in response to changes in blood glucose levels

2

Beta cells

secrete insulin when glucose is high

stimulates glucose uptake by muscle and liver cells, which lowers blood glucose levels

3

Alpha cells

secrete glucagon when glucose is low

stimulates release of glucose

4

Who discovered insulin?

Joseph von Mering and Oscar Minkowski

5

Other names for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

IDDM, Type 1, Brittle, Juvenile Onset

6

What is the cause of IDDM?

the central problem is the lack of insulin. The beta cells may have been destroyed

7

autoimmunity

antibodies can be made against beta cells in IDDM

8

Polygenic

different genes contribute to the expression of diabetes

9

Gene IDDM1

responsible for beta cells displaying improper antigens to T cells, which provokes attacking

10

Epigenics

studies have been done with twins (same genetic makeup) and suggests that environmental factors play a role in "turning on" genes linked by Type 1 diabetes

11

IDDM
1. age of onset
2. genetics
3. immunity
4. body weight
5. metabolism
6. treatment

1. usually <45, often childhood or young adults
2. fewer than 10% of 1st degree relatives affected
3. an increased incidence of autoimmunity
4. usually lean
5. ketosis prone
6. insulin and controlled diet and exercise

12

hyperglycemia

increased levels of glucose in the blood

13

Ketosis

increased oxidation of fats for energy

14

what yields the synthesis of ketones?

increased abundance of acetyl CoA

15

diabetic ketoacidosis

caused by accumulated ketone bodies in the blood that aren't buffered and cause the blood to become acidic

may lead to diabetic coma

16

signs of diabetic ketoacidosis

- thirst or very dry mouth
- frequent urination
- high blood glucose levels
- high levels of ketones in the urine
- fatigue
- nausea, vomiting, ab pain
- hard time breathing
- fruity odor on breath
- hard time paying attention; confusion

17

Without insulin the liver increases _____ to make glucose and _____ to break down glycogen. These two processes result in an increase of ___ in the blood.

gluconeogensis
glycogenolysis
glucose

18

Without insulin the adipose tissue increases the breakdown of ____ due to unopposed action to glucagon and releases _____ into the blood. This leads to an increased production of _____ and results in ______.

fats
fatty acids
ketones
ketogenesis

19

What is the treatment for IDDM and how does it work?

Insulin pump

it delivers short fast acting insulin around the clock through the catheter placed under the skin. It separates your insulin dosage into the basal rate and the bolus rate.

20

other names for Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

NIDDM, Type 2 maturity onset, adult onset, stable diabetes

21

NIDDM
1. age of onset
2. genetics
3. immunity
4. body weight
5. metabolism
6. treatment

1. usually after 30, epidemic among obesity
2. >25% of 1st degree relatives are affected
3. no increased incidence of autoimmunity in patients
4. overweight or obese
5. ketosis resistant
6. weight loss, exercise, proper diet, may need glucose lowering agents or insulin over time

22

What causes NIDDM?

the central problem is insulin resistance; most common cause is down regulation of insulin receptors

23

Body Mass Index

measure of body fat based on weight and height that applies to both men and women

25-29.9 is overweight
30+ is obese

24

formula for BMI

= (weight in lbs x 7-3)/(height in in.)^2

25

T or F: Ketosis occurs only in NIDDM?

false!
ketosis does NOT occur in NIDDM

26

Hyperosmolar Coma

enough insulin is present in NIDDM to prevent ketosis, but there is enough insulin resistance to create a very high glucose level in blood and extracellular fluid. This causes H2O to flow to the tissues and cause dehydration.

27

Three P's of diabetes

1. polyuria
2. polyphagia
3. polydipsia

28

Polyuria

increased urination to get rid of the extra sugar can lead to dehydration

29

Polyphagia

frequent hunger

in NIDDM more insulin is being produced (but not effective) and insulin increases hunger

30

Polydipsia

excessive thirst

body encourages more water consumption to dilute the high blood sugar