Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (35)
secrete insulin and glucagon in response to changes in blood glucose levels
secrete insulin when glucose is high
stimulates glucose uptake by muscle and liver cells, which lowers blood glucose levels
secrete glucagon when glucose is low
stimulates release of glucose
Who discovered insulin?
Joseph von Mering and Oscar Minkowski
Other names for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
IDDM, Type 1, Brittle, Juvenile Onset
What is the cause of IDDM?
the central problem is the lack of insulin. The beta cells may have been destroyed
antibodies can be made against beta cells in IDDM
different genes contribute to the expression of diabetes
responsible for beta cells displaying improper antigens to T cells, which provokes attacking
studies have been done with twins (same genetic makeup) and suggests that environmental factors play a role in "turning on" genes linked by Type 1 diabetes
1. age of onset
4. body weight
1. usually <45, often childhood or young adults
2. fewer than 10% of 1st degree relatives affected
3. an increased incidence of autoimmunity
4. usually lean
5. ketosis prone
6. insulin and controlled diet and exercise
increased levels of glucose in the blood
increased oxidation of fats for energy
what yields the synthesis of ketones?
increased abundance of acetyl CoA
caused by accumulated ketone bodies in the blood that aren't buffered and cause the blood to become acidic
may lead to diabetic coma
signs of diabetic ketoacidosis
- thirst or very dry mouth
- frequent urination
- high blood glucose levels
- high levels of ketones in the urine
- nausea, vomiting, ab pain
- hard time breathing
- fruity odor on breath
- hard time paying attention; confusion
Without insulin the liver increases _____ to make glucose and _____ to break down glycogen. These two processes result in an increase of ___ in the blood.
Without insulin the adipose tissue increases the breakdown of ____ due to unopposed action to glucagon and releases _____ into the blood. This leads to an increased production of _____ and results in ______.
What is the treatment for IDDM and how does it work?
it delivers short fast acting insulin around the clock through the catheter placed under the skin. It separates your insulin dosage into the basal rate and the bolus rate.
other names for Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
NIDDM, Type 2 maturity onset, adult onset, stable diabetes
1. age of onset
4. body weight
1. usually after 30, epidemic among obesity
2. >25% of 1st degree relatives are affected
3. no increased incidence of autoimmunity in patients
4. overweight or obese
5. ketosis resistant
6. weight loss, exercise, proper diet, may need glucose lowering agents or insulin over time
What causes NIDDM?
the central problem is insulin resistance; most common cause is down regulation of insulin receptors
Body Mass Index
measure of body fat based on weight and height that applies to both men and women
25-29.9 is overweight
30+ is obese
formula for BMI
= (weight in lbs x 7-3)/(height in in.)^2
T or F: Ketosis occurs only in NIDDM?
ketosis does NOT occur in NIDDM
enough insulin is present in NIDDM to prevent ketosis, but there is enough insulin resistance to create a very high glucose level in blood and extracellular fluid. This causes H2O to flow to the tissues and cause dehydration.
Three P's of diabetes
increased urination to get rid of the extra sugar can lead to dehydration
in NIDDM more insulin is being produced (but not effective) and insulin increases hunger