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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (9)
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1

Define passive transport

There is no energy input required

exemplified by simple diffusions and facilitated diffusion

uses concentration gradient; molecules move across a bilayer based on gradients

2

Define Active Transport

uses energy to transfer molecules against a concentration gradient

3

Facilitated Diffusion

uses channel proteins to move large or charged molecules down their concentration gradient

ex) chemically gated Na+ channel found in muscle cell plasma membranes

4

Simple Diffusion

involves the propulsion of each solute by random molecular motion from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

5

What allows the uptake of glucose from the blood to ultimately lower blood sugar?

Insulin

causes change within cells that are response/sensitive to insulin

6

What are the two forms of active transport and define them?

Primary Active Transport
- transmembrane ATP-hydrolizing enzymes provide the energy to drive the transport of ions or molecules
- NaK ATPase (sodium potassium pump)

Secondary Active Transport
- concentration gradients formed by primary active transport tare used to move their substances across the membrane
- ATP-ADP translocase - movement of ATP out of inner membrane space and ADP into the mitochondrial matrix to be used to make ATP

7

Cystic Fibroses

autosomal recessive genetic disorder (from Mom and Dad)

greatly effects the lungs and digestive tract

8

CFTR Protein

- chloride transporter found at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells
- in normal cells, allows the release of Cl- from the cell

-when blocked it causes very thick and dry mucus layer

9

Effects of thick mucus secretions in CF

in lungs - prevent cilia on surface of cells from clearing bacteria and also makes it difficult to breathe

in pancreas - block passageways so digestive enzymes cannot get to the intestine - can't absorb nutrients