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Exam 1 > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (18):
1

How does DM present?

polydipsia, (dehydration), polyuria (esp. night), rapid weight loss, lack of appetite, TATT, vision blur, thrush

2

How to diagnose DM?

fasting glucose > 7mM
oral glucose > 11.1mM after 2 hours
HbA1c > 6.5%

Symptoms: 1 abnormal test, Asymptomatic: 2 abnormal test

3

Describe type 1 DM

autoimmune beta cell destruction
normally young people with genetic predisposition
environmental as well

4

How to detect type 1 DM? What is the treatment?

elevated venous plasma glucose
presence of ketones (breakdown product of fat) measured using 'ketostik' - absolute lack of insulin

treatment: exogenous insulin through subcutaneous injection given several times a day

5

What is type 2 DM?

when insulin receptors do not work (don't bind) OR not enough insulin is produced by body

develops later on in life due to lifestyle choices

6

type 2 DM symptoms

polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss
no urinary ketones
may be asymptomatic at early stages

7

Symptoms of hyperglycaemia

polyuria, polydipsia, blurring of vision, urogenital infections, (weight loss)

8

Symptoms of inadequate energy utilisation

tiredness, weakness, lethargy, weight loss

9

How do you manage diabetes?

change of diet (less fat & high sugars) & lifestyle (more exercise)
insulin injections as tablets won't work - body enzymes break it down by liver - inject to blood

10

How to monitor type 2 diabetes?

lifestyle
non-insulin therapies
insulin
look for vascular risk factors - BP, lipids, smoking, exercise, diet
surveillance for chronic complications (eyes, diabetes foot)

11

How do you monitor type 1 diabetes

insulin injections

12

What happens if treatment is not effective?

gradual worsening of symptoms
hyPERglycaemia
inadequate energy utilisation - ketones instead of glucose
worsening / onset of complications of diabetes - CV risks

13

acute complications of diabetes

1. diabetic ketoacidosis (type 1) - blood become acidic due to fat metabolism producing ketones
2. hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome (type 2) - high blood sugar cause dehydration

14

acute complications of hyPOglycaemia

coma - brain needs glucose ONLY

15

chronic macrovascular complications of DM

large vessel disease:
1. cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular disease
2. stroke, heart attack, intermittent claudication, gangrene

16

chronic MICROvascular complications of DM

1. retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy
2. blindness, need for renal replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, foot ulceration, diarrhoea, constipation, painful peripheral neuropathy

17

Why does diabetes develop?

inability to produce insulin (beta cells)
insulin doesn't bind to receptors (resistance)

18

What are signs & symptoms of hypoglycaemia?

pale, weak, sweating, faint, confusion, headache, mood change (angry, violent), slurred speech, unconsciousness, coma --> death

lack of glucose for normal functioning of CNS - body's response to stress