Flashcards in MoD - neoplasia Deck (29):
what is neoplasm?
abnormal growth of cells that persist after removal of initial stimulus
what is grading used for?
planning treatment and estimating prognosis
what are the different types of grading?
G1: well differentiated
G2: moderately differentiated
G3: poorly differentiated
G4: undifferentiated or anaplastic
which carcinoma uses the Bloom Richardson grading system?
what does the Bloom Richardson grading system assess?
number of mitoses
nuclear pleiomorphism (nuclear variation)
which cancers use grading?
primary brain tumours, lymphomas, breast & prostate
what are the dukes staging used for?
what are the different dukes staging?
A: invasion onto the wall
B: invasion through the wall
C: node involvement
D: distant metastasis
What is tumour staging used for?
measure of the malignant neoplasms' overall burden
what are the different tumour staging systems?
what are the 4 stages of cancer?
1; early local disease
2: advanced local disease
3: regional metastasis (node involvement)
4: advance disease with distant metastasis
Describe the TNM staging?
T: size 1-4 (size of primary tumour
N: regional node involvement 0-3
M: distant metastatic spread 0-1
which cancer uses the Ann Arbor staging?
describe the ann arbor staging
1. single node
2. 2 nodes but same side of diaphragm
3. nodes spread to both sides of diaphragm
4. diffuse or disseminated involvement (organ involvement)
which cancers are screened in the UK?
breast, bowel, cervical
which tumour markers are released by testicular tumours?
HCG released into circulation
which cancer marker released by hepatocellular carcinoma?
which cancer marker for prostate cancer?
which marker for ovarian cancer?
what are the different treatment types for cancer?
radiotherapy (rapidly dividing cells, trigger apoptosis through free-radical induce DNA damage)
chemotherapy (alkalytaing, platinum drugs, plant-derived drugs, antibiotics)
hormone therapy (tamoxifen bind to oestrogen receptors preventing oestrogen from binding)
neoadjuvant (before surgery - reduce size of primary tumour)
adjuvant (after surgery - eliminate subclinical disease)
what are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?
self sufficiency in growth signalling e.g. RAS / HER2
resistance to growth stop signals (CDK gene deletion)
grow indefinitely (telomerase)
induce new blood vessels (VEGF)
resist apoptosis (BCL2)
invade & produce metastases (e-cadherin mutation)
what is tumour suppressor gene?
inhibit neoplastic growth
need both aleles to be mutated to inactivate
what prevents apoptosis cascade from occurring?
mutation to BCL-2 (both alleles - type of TSG)
what is the function of p53?
recognises DNA damage and induces apoptosis
what is the function of RB protein?
cell cycle checkpoint between G1 and S
looks for DNA damage and induces apoptosis prior to DNA replication in S phase
what are oncogenes?
enhance neoplastic growth
1 allele inactivated for the mutation to occur
what is the function of RAS?
activates cyclin to enter cell cycle
cyclin bind to CDK, cyclin-CDK complex phosphorylates protein RB to allow the cell cycle to be pushed beyond RB
RAS is an oncogene
what is the function of c-myc?
TF role in cell cycle progression and upregulates cyclin
(encourages cell to be pushed past