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Flashcards in MoD - neoplasia Deck (29):
1

what is neoplasm?

abnormal growth of cells that persist after removal of initial stimulus

2

what is grading used for?

planning treatment and estimating prognosis

3

what are the different types of grading?

G1: well differentiated
G2: moderately differentiated
G3: poorly differentiated
G4: undifferentiated or anaplastic

4

which carcinoma uses the Bloom Richardson grading system?

breast cancer

5

what does the Bloom Richardson grading system assess?

tubule formation
number of mitoses
nuclear pleiomorphism (nuclear variation)

6

which cancers use grading?

primary brain tumours, lymphomas, breast & prostate

7

what are the dukes staging used for?

colorectal carcinoma

8

what are the different dukes staging?

A: invasion onto the wall
B: invasion through the wall
C: node involvement
D: distant metastasis

9

What is tumour staging used for?

measure of the malignant neoplasms' overall burden

10

what are the different tumour staging systems?

Ann Arbor
TNM
Dukes

11

what are the 4 stages of cancer?

1; early local disease
2: advanced local disease
3: regional metastasis (node involvement)
4: advance disease with distant metastasis

12

Describe the TNM staging?

T: size 1-4 (size of primary tumour
N: regional node involvement 0-3
M: distant metastatic spread 0-1

13

which cancer uses the Ann Arbor staging?

lymphoma

14

describe the ann arbor staging

1. single node
2. 2 nodes but same side of diaphragm
3. nodes spread to both sides of diaphragm
4. diffuse or disseminated involvement (organ involvement)

15

which cancers are screened in the UK?

BBC
breast, bowel, cervical

16

which tumour markers are released by testicular tumours?

HCG released into circulation

17

which cancer marker released by hepatocellular carcinoma?

alpha foetoprotein

18

which cancer marker for prostate cancer?

PSA

19

which marker for ovarian cancer?

CA 125

20

what are the different treatment types for cancer?

radiotherapy (rapidly dividing cells, trigger apoptosis through free-radical induce DNA damage)
chemotherapy (alkalytaing, platinum drugs, plant-derived drugs, antibiotics)
hormone therapy (tamoxifen bind to oestrogen receptors preventing oestrogen from binding)
neoadjuvant (before surgery - reduce size of primary tumour)
adjuvant (after surgery - eliminate subclinical disease)

21

what are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?

self sufficiency in growth signalling e.g. RAS / HER2
resistance to growth stop signals (CDK gene deletion)
grow indefinitely (telomerase)
induce new blood vessels (VEGF)
resist apoptosis (BCL2)
invade & produce metastases (e-cadherin mutation)

22

what is tumour suppressor gene?

inhibit neoplastic growth
need both aleles to be mutated to inactivate

23

what prevents apoptosis cascade from occurring?

mutation to BCL-2 (both alleles - type of TSG)

24

what is the function of p53?

recognises DNA damage and induces apoptosis

25

what is the function of RB protein?

cell cycle checkpoint between G1 and S
looks for DNA damage and induces apoptosis prior to DNA replication in S phase

26

what are oncogenes?

enhance neoplastic growth
1 allele inactivated for the mutation to occur

27

what is the function of RAS?

activates cyclin to enter cell cycle
cyclin bind to CDK, cyclin-CDK complex phosphorylates protein RB to allow the cell cycle to be pushed beyond RB

RAS is an oncogene

28

what is the function of c-myc?

TF role in cell cycle progression and upregulates cyclin
(encourages cell to be pushed past

29

what is function of HER2?

DNA damage repair
when mutated aposes apoptosis