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Flashcards in ToB - blood (session 10) Deck (16):

where are blood cells created

bone marrow
(haemopoietic progenitor - stem cells)


where are blood cells derived from? name each subtype

myeloid blasts (platelets (megakaryocytes), monocytes (macrophage), erthrocytes (RBC), granulocytes (WBC))
lymphocytes (B & T cells)


what is development of blood cells driven by?



what causes blood cells to remain in the bone marrow?

adhesion molecules (e.g. collagen) up-regulated
down-regulated to release blood cells into circulation


how is erythrocytes production regulated? what is the 1/2 life of erythrocytes?

negative feedback
production of erythropoietin at the kidneys in response to hypoxia (lack of O2, decrease pO2)
stimulates erythrocyte production
1/2 life of 120 days


How is damaged or dying RBC broken down and removed?

spleen breaks down damaged or dying RBC and liver (urea) removes products from the body


what is the function of RBC? and structure

deliver O2 to tissues
carry haemoglobin
maintain haemoglobin in its reduced (ferrous) state - Fe2+
maintain osmotic equilibrium
generate ATP
biconcave flexible disc
faulty RBC removed by spleen & broken down


where are platelets produced? how?

produced by megakaryocytes
increase in size and replicate DNA
platelets bud from cytoplasm
controlled by thrombopoietin (TPO)


what is the structure of platelets and where are they stored?

no nucleus
stored in spleen


what is the function of platelets?

adhesion to CT & aggregation with other platelets to form a platelet plug
involved in activation of the clotting cascade
fibrin mesh traps platelets and RBC


what is the structure of neutrophils (nucleus) and function?

contain multi-lobed nucleus
enhance chemotaxis - movement changed by chemicals (go to where is needed)
enhance phagocytosis and killing of pathogens
migrates out of circulation to site of infection
kills pathogen by release of cell contents, once all released, neutrophils die
the 1st cell that triggers the rest into action


what do monocytes look like and function?

largest cell in the body and will move to certain tissue types and differentiate
large nucleus kidney shaped
lots of phagocytic potential as they turn into macrophages & interact with T cells


what do eosinophils look like and function?

Bi-lobed nucleus
fight parasites e.g. worms
contain many granules
in ALLERGIC reactions
can phagocytose, cause damage by releasing cytotoxic particles


what are basophils structure & function? where is it found?

found in the blood (unlike mast cells)
hard to see nucleus
allergic reactions - mediate acute inflammatory by histamine & heparin


what are mast cells structure and function? where is it found?

v similar to basophil
found in tissues NOT blood
different progenitor (originate)


where are lymphocytes found? structure? function?

adaptive immune response
large nucleus: cytoplasmic ratio
deep staining nucleus
B: humoral immunity (can be memory), antigens stimulate T cells to activate B cells into plasma cells to secrete immuoglobins (antibodies)
T: express CD4 on surface, turn B cells to plasma cells, help/killer cells
can present antigens