Diabetes Flashcards Preview

MIMS > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (117)
Loading flashcards...
1

Full name of diabetes

Give meaning and reason for name

Diabetes mellitus

“Siphon of honey” - one feature of the disease is passing large volumes of urine containing glucose (when there are high levels of blood glucose)

2

What is diabetes

A disease in which blood glucose concentration is inappropriately raised

3

What are normal blood glucose levels

4mM(fasting) - 7mM (fed)

4

Does insulin affect all tissues in the same way

No

It is required for efficient uptake of glucose in muscle and fat but not in liver or brain, which respond to it in other ways

5

Insulin is a ____ by function and a ____ by structure

Hormone

Protein

6

What is the % of diabetics who are type one

5%

7

What causes type 1 diabetes

Environmental: could be a virus or chemical
Genetic: several genes have been identified which can predispose or protect

8

How might type 1 diabetes be cured

Transplant of islets or stem cells
Vaccine?

9

How much of diabetics are type 2

90%

10

What are the genetic and environmental components that affect type 2 diabetes

Genetic: no simple inheritance: different genes might contribute, runs in families

Environmental: low birth weight and adult obesity are major risk factors

11

Treatment for type 2 diabetes?

Mild: lifestyle (diet and exercise)
Moderate: drugs that stimulate insulin secretion or improve insulin sensitivity
Severe: insulin injection

12

What kind of drugs increase insulin secretion

Sulphonylureas

13

What kind of drugs improve insulin sensitivity?

Thiazolidinediones

14

What are the rarer forms of diabetes

MODY (mature onset diabetes of the young)
Severe insulin resistance (mutation in insulin receptor)
Gestational diabetes (pregnancy associated hormone disturbance, affecting insulin)
Secondary diabetes (as a consequence of a pancreatic disease or hormone disturbance)

15

What happens in the short term for type 1 diabetes generally

Glucose uptake into muscle and fat is impaired, causing hyperglycaemia
Glucose spills over into urine, requiring water for excretion
Body fat and protein are broken down as alternative fuels
Production of ketoacids from fats is increased

16

What happens if food intake doesn’t match insulin therapy

Hypoglycaemia, leading to trembling, sweating and potentially a coma (due to a lack of glucose to the brain)

17

Long term complications of diabetes

Micro vascular: eyes and kidney
Neuropathy: particularly deer
Macro vascular: increased risk of stroke and heart attack

18

How many amino acids does insulin have? Is every one necessary?

Briefly describe its structure

51

No

2 polypeptide chains linked by disulphide bonds between C residues

19

Who discovered insulin’s primary structure

Sanger in Cambridge in 1955

20

What is glucagon

A polypeptide, produced by alpha cells in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

21

How does [insulin] compare to [glucose]

[insulin]= 0.1-1nM
[glucose] = 5-10 mM

22

In insulin anabolic?

Yes

23

How does insulin affect muscle

Increases glucose uptake
Increases conversion of glucose to glycogen
Increases protein synthesis
Decreases proteolysis

24

How does insulin affect fat

Increases glucose uptake
Increases lipogenesis
Decreases lipolysis
Increases protein synthesis

25

How does insulin affect
The Liver

No effect on glucose uptake
Increases conversion of glucose into glycogen and lipid
Decreases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis

26

How does insulin affect the CNS

No effect on glucose uptake or metabolism
Suppressed appetite
Promotes fertility

27

How does insulin affect pancreatic beta cells

Promotes insulin synthesis and secretion
Promotes proliferation

28

What subcellular compartments does insulin act on

Stimulation of glucose uptake involves trafficking vesicles to plasma membranes

Stimulations of glycogen synthesis involves effects in cytosolic enzymes

Stimulation of lipogenesis involves effects on mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes

Inhibition of gluconeogenesis involves effects in gene transcription in the nucleus

29

3 reasons all cells need a constant supply on energy

Biosynthetic reactions in maintenance and division

Maintain correct ionic and chemical balance of intracelleular environment

Specialised functions eg muscle contraction

30

How do mammalian cells obtain energy from derivatives of food

Oxidation