Cancer Flashcards Preview

MIMS > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (112)
Loading flashcards...
1

Where is the incidence of cancer highest and lowest

Highest generally more developed countries (it is the 2nd largest cause of death after cardiovascular disease)
Lowest in developing countries, lowest in Africa as a continent

4 fold difference between them

2

What is the largest cause of cancer

Smoking (~30%)

3

What does metastasis mean

Spreading to other organs from the site of origin (primary tumour) to other sites (secondary tumours)

4

What are carcinomas

Malignant rumours of epithelial cells

5

What is carcinoma in situ

A pre-malignant change in which the epithelium shows malignant changes but does not invade underlying tissue

6

What are sarcomas

Tumours of tissue derived from the mesenchymal layer

7

What sí leukaemia

Abnormal proliferation of circulating white blood cells

8

How do the hallmarks of cancer arise

Why is it an old age disease

Through accumulation of mutations in the genome


There is an accumulation of mutations

9

How many bases and genes in the human genome

3x10^9

~ 20,000 genes

10

How close to a blood vessel must a cell be to avoid hypoxia

Why

~10 cells distance

Inadequate diffusion over long distances

11

What is angiogenesis

Growth of new blood vessels

12

What does bevacizumab target

It is A monoclonal antibody that targets VEGF

13

What is the vasculature in tumours like and what does this mean

Tumour neo-vasculature is usually leaky and tortuous with unstable blood flow patterns, leading to hypoxia and thus necrosis in the core

14

Are tumours clonal?

Yes but mutations result in them being heterogenous with multiple clones co-existing in the tumour. The predominant clone at any point will comprise superior fitness compared to the other clones

15

Which mutations give rise to cancer

Mutations in key signalling molecules that control cell fate

16

Give the 4 hallmarks of cancer

Mutation
Angiogenesis
Tumour expression
Invasion and metastasis

17

How many deaths in 2014 were caused by cancer

29%

18

True or false: the increased cancer incidence may be accounted for by increased longevity

True
More than a third of deaths from cancer were in people aged 75 or over
Cancer is mainly a disease of old age due to the accumulation of genetic changes over time

19

What are the top 3 environmental causes of cancer

Smoking (33%)
Obesity (20%)
Diet (5%)

20

Name an infection that causes cancer

Helicobacter pylori

21

Name 2 kinds of transmissible cancer

Tasmanian devil facial tumours

Canine transmissible venereal tumours

22

True or false: the most common cancers have a good survival rate

False
Several of the most common cancers have a very poor survival rate

23

Which are the four most common causes of cancer mortality

Lung
Bowel
Breast
Prostate

24

What is the largest preventable cause of cancer

Smoking

25

Why may large dog breeds be more susceptible to osteosarcomas

What evidence further backs this up

Highly active growth plates at these sites?

Primary osteosarcomas are generally restricted to children and young adults

26

What does mastinib do

It is a small molecule inhibitor that targets the c-Kit growth factor receptor in dogs

27

What are the key differences between benign and malignant tumours?

Benign: slow growing
Encapsulated
Non-invasive/ -metastatic
Differentiated

Malignant: fast growing
Invasive/ metastatic
Poorly differentiated

28

Which of the following are benign and which are malignant:
Adenoma
Sarcoma
Fibroma
Hyperplasia
Carcinomas in situ
Carcinoma
Dysplasia
Metaplasia

Only carcinoma and sarcoma are malignant

The rest (including carcinoma in situ) are benign

29

What is a sarcoma

Tumours of mesenchymal layer (connective tissue and blood vessels)

30

What is leukaemia

Abnormal proliferation of white blood cells