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Flashcards in Biomacromolecules, Protein Structure Deck (221)
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1

Name the 4 macromolecules

Carbohydrates
Nucleic acids
Proteins
Lipids (but these are not covalently bonded)

2

What are sugars

Straight chain polyhydroxy alcohols, including an aldehyde or ketone group

3

What is a glucose molecule

What is its usual form

6 C sugar with an aldehyde group on C1

Cyclic

4

What different forms of glucose are formed when it becomes cyclic

Why

α glucose
β glucose

New chiral centres are formed

5

How is β glucose arranged

Chair conformation
NOT planar but puckered

6

What is fructose, how is it different to glucose and what ring does it form

A 6 C sugar with a ketone group on position 2

5 sided ring

7

What is the bind formed why two monosaccharides are linked by a condensation reaction

Glycosidic bond

8

Which end of a sugar chain is the reducing end

Where the ring can be opened to produce a free reducing group (the aldehyde end)

9

Name 2 common disaccharides

Lactose
Sucrose

10

What is starch a polymer of

What is starch used for

α glucose

To store energy in plants

11

What is glycogen a polymer of

What is glycogen used for

α glucose

To store energy in animals

12

Are glycogen and starch branched?

Yes, but starch is more tightly packed so glycogen has more free ends from which glucose can be cut

13

What is cellulose

Unbranched chain of glucose connected by β linkages
V strong due to H bonds
Only termites can break it down in their digestive tract

14

What are proteins and lipids coated in

Complex carbohydrates (oligosaccharides)

15

What is RNA

A working template involved in gene expression and an information store in some viruses

It has a structural role in some cellular machinery eg ribosomes

16

Describe the sugar in DNA

Where is it deoxy

Deoxyribose is an aldopentose whose β-anomer is used in DNA

C2

17

What is the base used in DNA

Purines or pyrimidines with extra groups

18

What are the purine bases

A
G

19

What’s re the pyrimidine bases

C
T
U

20

Give the complementary base pairs

A-T
G-C
A-U

21

How is the stranding different in RNA to DNA

RNA is single stranded

22

How is the double helix arranged

How often is a complete turn

2 poly-nucleotide strands arranged with an external phosphate backbone and bases pointed to the centre like ladder rungs

Every 3.4nm

23

Why does DNA have major and minor grooves

Provide access to the bases for DNA binding proteins

24

Why does a hairpin loop form in RNA

Some regions are complementary to other regions in same strand

25

How does the HIV virus use RNA

It is its genetic material containing many loops and hairpin structures, which is important to pack the RNA into the virus capsid and time control gene expression

26

What is a ribosome molecularly

What are the active sites made of

A complex of RNA and protein

It is a ribozyme- an RNA molecule that acts as an enzyme

RNA

27

Give the 4 levels of protein structure

Amino acid sequence
Local backbone arrangement
3D fold
Arrangement of subunits

28

What do all amino acids contain?

An amino group, a carboxyl group and a H around a central α C with a 4th R group

29

What form does the α carbon take in proteins

L form

30

Which amino acid has no side chain

Glycine