Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Endocrine System > Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Deck (23)
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1

What is Diabetes Mellitus

hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin production by pancreas or insulin resistance to cells in the body

2

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

does not produce insulin

3

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

decreased insulin production, insulin resistance

4

What is the cause of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

obesity, inactivity, heredity

5

Risk factors of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

-obesity
-hypertension, hyperlipedmia
-smoking

6

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

hormones of the placenta counteract insulin, resulting in glucose intolerance during pregnancy

7

The 3 Ps that are S/S of hyperglycemia

-polydipsia (excessive thirst)
-polyphagia (excessive eating)
-polyuria (excessive urination)

8

Besides the 3 Ps what are the most important S/S of hyperglycemia

-fruity breath odor
-Kussmaul respirations (increase rate, depth of respirations)

9

Other S/S of hyperglycemia

-warm/dry skin
-lethargy (lack of energy)
-weakness

10

GI symptoms of hyperglycemia

-weight loss
-dehydration
-nausea vomiting

11

Treatment for hyperglycemia

-insulin
-oral hypoglycemia agents (type 2 DM only)

12

Foot care for Diabetes Mellitus patient

-inspect feet daily using a mirror, check shoes for objects
-apply moisturizer to feet, but NOT between toes

13

What kind of socks should a Diabetes Mellitus patient wear

cotton socks, and NEVER go barefoot or opened toes shoes

14

How should Diabetes Mellitus cut there toe nails

Straight across, dont use OTC products

15

What should be avoided putting on a patients foot who has Diabetes Mellitus

do NOT use heating pads on feet

16

Illness care for a patient with Diabetes Mellitus

-test urine for ketones
-drink 3 L of water per day to prevent dehydration
-monitor blood glucose more frequently if sick

17

What are causes of hypoglycemia

-excess insulin
-decreased food intake
-exercise
-excess alcohol

18

S/S of hypoglycemia

-hunger, irritability
-confusion, diaphoresis
-headache, shakiness
-blurred vision
-pale/cool skin
-decreased LOC
-seizure/coma

19

Nursing care for a Diabetes Mellitus who become hypoglycemic

provide quickly absorbed 15 g of carbs for a conscious pt and glucagon for an unconscious pt

20

What are examples of 15 g carbs

-4-6 oz juice/soda
-8 oz milk

21

What should be done after a hypoglycemic episode

recheck blood sugar in 15 mins, if <70, repeat admin of carb and check in another 15 mins

22

What should be done once the pt blood glucose goes above 70

have them consume a snack containing a protein and a carb

23

What to do when an unconscious pt regains conscious from hypoglycemia

have them consume a carbohydrate snack