Flashcards in Diaphragm and post abd wall Deck (72):
what separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
what nerve supplies the right and left hemidiaphragms?
what supplies the lateral borders of the diaphragm, as well as receiving sensory info?
which spinal nerves give off the phrenic nerve?
C3, C4, C5 (C3, 4, and 5 keep me breathing and alive)
what nerve carries sensory fibers that innervate the central portion of the diaphragm?
where does the diaphragm remain if it descends?
remains high in thorax
when can we detect hemiparalysis?
during inhalation only
at what spinal level do we find the vena cava foramen?
at what spinal level do we find the esophageal hiatus?
what is found at the diaphragm level of T12?
which vessels supply the superior surface of the diaphragm?
Pericadriacophrenic and superior phrenic arteries (supply via internal thoracic artery and thoracic aorta
Which vessel(s) supply the inferior surface of the diaphragm?
Inferior phrenic arteries (via abdominal aorta)
what artery/arteries supply the periphery of the diaphragm?
musculophrenic arteries (via internal thoracic artery)
at what vertebral column level are the kidneys found?
lateral to vertebra T12-L3
where is the superior pole of the left kidney?
where is the superior pole of the right kidney?
what encapsulates the kidneys?
perirenal fat and renal fascia
where are horseshoe kidneys found?
below the IMA
where are transplanted kidneys found?
on what part of the kidneys are the adrenal and suprarenal glands found?
are the kidneys within the peritoneum?
NO--> they are retroperitoneal
of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is most anterior?
of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is most posterior?
of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is the deepest?
renal pelvis- becomes the ureter
what is the fibrous capsule?
outermost layer of the kidneys
what is found in the outer 1/3 of the kidney?
what structure contains the renal pyramids?
the renal medulla
what structure comprises the inner 2/3 of the kidney?
what structure receives the tips of the pyramids?
what do 2-3 minor calyces form?
the major calyces converge to form what
which renal artery is longer?
right renal artery
which renal artery passes posterior to the internal vena cava?
the right renal artery
where does each renal artery divide into 5 segmental arteries?
do the segmental arteries of the renal artery use collateral circulation?
NO --> they are end arteries
where do the renal veins empty into?
the inferior vena cava
where are the renal veins found?
ANTERIOR to renal arteries
which renal vein is longer?
which renal vein passes anteriorly over the aorta?
the left renal vein
why is the right renal artery longer?
it must pass posterior to the IVC
why is the right renal vein shorter?
its found closer to the IVC
what muscle do the ureters pass over to enter the bladder?
the Psoas major
in what direction do the ureters run in relation to the gonadal vessels?
obliquely and posteriorly
what condition increases the risk for kidney stones?
compression of the ureters --> causes a decrease in flow
from what 3 sources do the ureter arteries arise?
1) renal artery- main source
2) testicular/ovarian artery
3) abdominal aorta
where do the veins of ureters drain into?
similarly named veins
what branch of the renal arteries supplies the ureters?
the ureteric branch
what is lithotripsy? and what does it do?
ultrasonic crushing of large kidney stones. allows them to pass thru the ureter to the bladder
where does the pain start when kidney stones are being passed?
from side and back between ribs- goes to pelvis and inguinal region
what region of cutaneous innervation is associated with kidney stone pain?
which adrenal gland is roughly triangular?
the right gland
where does the right adrenal gland lie?
superior to right kidney, POSTERIOR to inferior vena cava
what shape does the left adrenal gland take?
where does the left adrenal gland lie?
superomedial to left kidney near the Hilum
what are the 3 main parts of the adrenal glands?
1) fibrous capsule
2) adrenal cortex
3) adrenal medulla- acts as SYMPATHETIC ganglion
which 3 arteries deliver blood to the adrenal glands?
1) suprarenal arteries (6-8 branches) from inf phrenic artery
2) middle suprarenal (from abdominal artery)
3) inferior suprarenal (from renal artery)
name the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
1) transverse abdominus
2) quadratus lumborum
3) psoas major
5) psoas minor
what arteries supply the posterior wall? how many branches do they have?
Lumbar arteries. come off of the abdominal aorta, give 4 pairs of arteries
what do the nerves of the ventral rami of T12-L4 become? where are they located?
Form the lumbar plexus. Found beneath fascia of posterior abdominal muscles
where is the Subcostal nerve (T12) found? what does it supply?
1cm below the 12th rib. Supplies sensory to ant/lat abdominal wall. Supplies motor to ext oblique, int oblique, Transverse abdominus, pyramidalis, RA, Quad Lumborum
where are the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves found? where do they run?
can arise from common trunk (L1). descend anterior to quadrates lumborum
What does the iliohypogastric nerve supply?
skin of the suprapubic region
what does the ilioinguinal nerve supply?
runs thru the inguinal canal to supply it
what does the iliohypogastric run through?
between the transverse abdomens and internal oblique
describe the path of the genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2)
1) pierces psoas major
2) descends along anterior surface
3) Splits into femoral (lateral) and genital (medial) branches
4) supplies cremaster muscle of spermatic cord
where does the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous nerve run?
1) descends anterior to iliacus muscle
2) passes deep to inguinal ring
3) inferior to ASIS
what does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply?
anterior and lateral skin of the thigh
what path does the femoral nerve (L2-L4) take?
1) runs between iliacus and psoas major muscles
2) passes deep to inguinal ligament
3) runs inferior to ASIS
what does the femoral nerve innervate?
sensory and motor to anterior thigh
describe the path of the Obturator nerve
1) runs medial to psoas major
2) passes thru obturator foramen
supplies sensory & motor to MEDIAL thigh
what muscles are exclusively innervated by the lumbosacral trunk?
none- only contributes to various muscles