Diaphragm and post abd wall Flashcards Preview

gross anatomy- semester 2 test 2 > Diaphragm and post abd wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diaphragm and post abd wall Deck (72):
1

what separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?

The diaphragm

2

what nerve supplies the right and left hemidiaphragms?

Phrenic nerves

3

what supplies the lateral borders of the diaphragm, as well as receiving sensory info?

Intercostal nerves

4

which spinal nerves give off the phrenic nerve?

C3, C4, C5 (C3, 4, and 5 keep me breathing and alive)

5

what nerve carries sensory fibers that innervate the central portion of the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

6

where does the diaphragm remain if it descends?

remains high in thorax

7

when can we detect hemiparalysis?

during inhalation only

8

at what spinal level do we find the vena cava foramen?

T8

9

at what spinal level do we find the esophageal hiatus?

T10

10

what is found at the diaphragm level of T12?

aortic hiatus

11

which vessels supply the superior surface of the diaphragm?

Pericadriacophrenic and superior phrenic arteries (supply via internal thoracic artery and thoracic aorta

12

Which vessel(s) supply the inferior surface of the diaphragm?

Inferior phrenic arteries (via abdominal aorta)

13

what artery/arteries supply the periphery of the diaphragm?

musculophrenic arteries (via internal thoracic artery)

14

at what vertebral column level are the kidneys found?

lateral to vertebra T12-L3

15

where is the superior pole of the left kidney?

11th rib

16

where is the superior pole of the right kidney?

12th rib

17

what encapsulates the kidneys?

perirenal fat and renal fascia

18

where are horseshoe kidneys found?

below the IMA

19

where are transplanted kidneys found?

lower abdomen

20

on what part of the kidneys are the adrenal and suprarenal glands found?

superior pole

21

are the kidneys within the peritoneum?

NO--> they are retroperitoneal

22

of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is most anterior?

Renal vein

23

of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is most posterior?

renal artery

24

of the 3 structures exiting the kidney, which is the deepest?

renal pelvis- becomes the ureter

25

what is the fibrous capsule?

outermost layer of the kidneys

26

what is found in the outer 1/3 of the kidney?

renal cortex

27

what structure contains the renal pyramids?

the renal medulla

28

what structure comprises the inner 2/3 of the kidney?

renal medulla

29

what structure receives the tips of the pyramids?

renal papillae

30

what do 2-3 minor calyces form?

major calyces

31

the major calyces converge to form what

renal pelvis

32

which renal artery is longer?

right renal artery

33

which renal artery passes posterior to the internal vena cava?

the right renal artery

34

where does each renal artery divide into 5 segmental arteries?

the Hilum

35

do the segmental arteries of the renal artery use collateral circulation?

NO --> they are end arteries

36

where do the renal veins empty into?

the inferior vena cava

37

where are the renal veins found?

ANTERIOR to renal arteries

38

which renal vein is longer?

left

39

which renal vein passes anteriorly over the aorta?

the left renal vein

40

why is the right renal artery longer?

it must pass posterior to the IVC

41

why is the right renal vein shorter?

its found closer to the IVC

42

what muscle do the ureters pass over to enter the bladder?

the Psoas major

43

in what direction do the ureters run in relation to the gonadal vessels?

obliquely and posteriorly

44

what condition increases the risk for kidney stones?

compression of the ureters --> causes a decrease in flow

45

from what 3 sources do the ureter arteries arise?

1) renal artery- main source
2) testicular/ovarian artery
3) abdominal aorta

46

where do the veins of ureters drain into?

similarly named veins

47

what branch of the renal arteries supplies the ureters?

the ureteric branch

48

what is lithotripsy? and what does it do?

ultrasonic crushing of large kidney stones. allows them to pass thru the ureter to the bladder

49

where does the pain start when kidney stones are being passed?

from side and back between ribs- goes to pelvis and inguinal region

50

what region of cutaneous innervation is associated with kidney stone pain?

T11-12

51

which adrenal gland is roughly triangular?

the right gland

52

where does the right adrenal gland lie?

superior to right kidney, POSTERIOR to inferior vena cava

53

what shape does the left adrenal gland take?

semilunar

54

where does the left adrenal gland lie?

superomedial to left kidney near the Hilum

55

what are the 3 main parts of the adrenal glands?

1) fibrous capsule
2) adrenal cortex
3) adrenal medulla- acts as SYMPATHETIC ganglion

56

which 3 arteries deliver blood to the adrenal glands?

1) suprarenal arteries (6-8 branches) from inf phrenic artery
2) middle suprarenal (from abdominal artery)
3) inferior suprarenal (from renal artery)

57

name the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall

1) transverse abdominus
2) quadratus lumborum
3) psoas major
4) iliacus
5) psoas minor
6) diaphragm

58

what arteries supply the posterior wall? how many branches do they have?

Lumbar arteries. come off of the abdominal aorta, give 4 pairs of arteries

59

what do the nerves of the ventral rami of T12-L4 become? where are they located?

Form the lumbar plexus. Found beneath fascia of posterior abdominal muscles

60

where is the Subcostal nerve (T12) found? what does it supply?

1cm below the 12th rib. Supplies sensory to ant/lat abdominal wall. Supplies motor to ext oblique, int oblique, Transverse abdominus, pyramidalis, RA, Quad Lumborum

61

where are the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves found? where do they run?

can arise from common trunk (L1). descend anterior to quadrates lumborum

62

What does the iliohypogastric nerve supply?

skin of the suprapubic region

63

what does the ilioinguinal nerve supply?

runs thru the inguinal canal to supply it

64

what does the iliohypogastric run through?

between the transverse abdomens and internal oblique

65

describe the path of the genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2)

1) pierces psoas major
2) descends along anterior surface
3) Splits into femoral (lateral) and genital (medial) branches
4) supplies cremaster muscle of spermatic cord

66

where does the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous nerve run?

1) descends anterior to iliacus muscle
2) passes deep to inguinal ring
3) inferior to ASIS

67

what does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply?

anterior and lateral skin of the thigh

68

what path does the femoral nerve (L2-L4) take?

1) runs between iliacus and psoas major muscles
2) passes deep to inguinal ligament
3) runs inferior to ASIS

69

what does the femoral nerve innervate?

sensory and motor to anterior thigh

70

describe the path of the Obturator nerve

1) runs medial to psoas major
2) passes thru obturator foramen

supplies sensory & motor to MEDIAL thigh

71

what muscles are exclusively innervated by the lumbosacral trunk?

none- only contributes to various muscles

72

what does the lumbosacral trunk (L4-L5) cross over? what does it help form?

crosses over ala of sacrum. helps form sacral plexus