Embryology Flashcards Preview

gross anatomy- semester 2 test 2 > Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology Deck (52):
1

what gives rise to the epithelial lining and glands of the GI tract?

Endoderm

2

what type of folding gives us the GI tract?

Cranio-caudal folding

3

name the 3 gut regions

Foregut
Midgut
Hindgut

4

what does the ssplanchnic mesoderm become?

Smooth muscle and connective tissue of the GI tract

5

what forms the peritoneum?

Parietal - somatic mesoderm
Visceral - Splanchnic mesoderm

6

what forms the mesenteries?

Dorsal and Ventral are BOTH from splanchnic mesoderm

7

what is the function/structure of mesenteries

double layer of peritoneum that suspends an organ from the body wall

8

What is the peritoneum?

The serous membrane lining of the abdominal cavity (parietal) and organs (visceral)

9

what type of folding creates the mesenteries?

Lateral folding

10

What gives rise to the lesser omentum?

Ventral mesogastrium

11

what gives rise to the falciform ligament?

ventral mesogastrium

12

THe ventral mesogastrium gives us what?

Lesser omentum and falciform ligament

13

the greater omentum is created by what?

dorsal mesogastrium

14

the mesentery proper gives us what structure?

small intestine

15

what forms the enteric nervous system of the GI tract?

neural crest cells

16

what artery supplies the pharynx?

Pharyngeal arch arteries

17

the foregut is supplied by what?

celiac trunk

18

THe midgut is supplied by which artery

superior mesenteric artery (SMA)

19

the hindgut is supplied by what?

inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)

20

name the foregut derivatives

1) larynx
2) lower respiratory system
3) esophagus
4) stomach
5) proximal half of duodenum
6) associated organs (liver, gall bladder, pancreas)

21

when does the respiratory diverticulum appear?

week 4

22

where does the tracheoesophageal septum grow in from?

the lateral sides of the foregut. divide it into lower resp tract and esophagus

23

what is Stenosis?

abnormal narrowing of a lumen/orafice

24

define atresia

a body lumen or orifice is abnormally closed or absent

25

what is a fistula?

abnormal passageway between two organs/vessels

26

what causes the formation of the greater curvature in the stomach?

the dorsal side of the stomach expands faster, starting at week 4

27

which vagus nerve supplies the dorsal stomach? the ventral?

Dorsal - right
Ventral - Left

28

what is the Omental bursa?

The lesser sac of the peritoneum

29

what causes the enlargement of the Omental bursa?

the rotation of the stomach carries the Dorsal Mesogastrium to the left

30

where is the Omental Bursa located?

posterior to the stomach, with superior and inferior recesses

31

what forms the greater omentum?

the dorsal mesogastrium flapping over the small intestines

32

what artery supplies the duodenum

the celiac trunk - first half
SMA - second half

33

where does the hepatic diverticulum emerge?

ventrally from endoderm of distal foregut- gives liver, gall bladder and bile duct

34

the ventral and distal buds of the endodermal foregut form what?

Pancreas

35

what does the ventral bud of the pancreas become?

uncinate process + inferior portion of head

36

what makes up the main pancreatic duct?

distal portion of dorsal bud duct
ventral bud duct

37

the accessory pancreatic duct emerges from what?

proximal dorsal bud duct

38

what are the midgut derivatives?

distal half of duodenum
jejunum
ileum
cecum & appendix
ascending colon
proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

39

the Vitelline duct does what?

connects midgut to yolk sac

40

what is congenital Omphalocele?

persisting umbilical herniation. Vicera covered by amnion & WITHIN proximal umbilical cord

41

Gastrochisis

hernia through body wall and does not involve umbilical cord. Exposure to external amniotic fluid can damage viscera

42

when does the midgut make its first 90 degree rotation?

week 6

43

what is the 2nd midgut rotation? when does it occur?

180 degree counter-clockwise rotation that brings intestines to their normal position. during week TEN

44

are the ascending and descending colon within the peritoneum?

NO. they become secondarily retroperitoneal

45

which structures are intraperitoneal?

A) proximal duodenum
B) Jejunum, Ileum
C) transverse colon
D) sigmoid colon

46

what structures are retroperitoneal?

A) distal duodenum
B) pancreas
C) ascending colon
D) descending colon
E) kidneys

47

Volvulus

abnormal rotation causes intestinal loop twist around mesenteric attachment. leads to bowel obstruction

48

recanalization of midgut loop

when Intestines are temp occluded at week 6 because of endodermal growth

49

what is Meckel's (ileal) diverticulum?

a remnant of the Vitelline duct. persists as finger-like out pouching of the ileum. may cause ulcers and bleeding

50

what does the hindgut form?

distal 1/3 of transverse colon
decending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum
superior part of anal canal

51

what does the Urorectal septum do?

divides cloaca into urogenital sinus and the anorectal canal

52

what is Hirschsprung's disease? (ananglionic megacolon

ananglionic portion of bowel constricts and decends. Leads to severe constipation