Flashcards in Histology Deck (52):
What does the digestive system consist of?
The alimentary canal and associated digestive organs
What are the layers of the digestive system wall?
(From lumen outward)
3) muscularis externa
4) serosa or adventitia
WHat are the 3 layers of mucosa in the digestive wall?
Lining epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
What layer of the mucosa is made of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
which type of tissue is the lamina propria made of?
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
what type of muscle is the muscular is mucosae made of?
Smooth muscle tissue
What plexus is found in the submucosa?
What nerve plexus is found in the muscularis externa?
Myenteric nerve plexus (Auerbach's plexus)
What is the serosa made of?
Mesothelium and loose connective tissue
What is the adventitia made of?
loose (areolar) connective tissue
What are the two mucous glands found in the esophagus?
Esophageal glands (proper) - Submucosa
Esophageal cardiac glands - Lamina propria
Name the 4 subdivisions of the stomach
Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
which subdivision of the stomach attaches to the lower esophageal sphincter?
which subdivision of the stomach contain glands that secrete HCl and Pepsin?
what type of epithelium comprises the mucosa of the stomach?
Simple columnar epithelium
WHat are the 3 layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa
1) outer longitudinal
2) middle circular
3) inner oblique
which layer of the stomach lies deepest to the mucosa?
name the 3 parts of fundic glands
Isthmus, neck, base
what type of granules are found within chief cells?
What do chief cells produce?
Pepsinogen and gastric lipase
name the 3 parts of the small intestine in order
Duodenum, Jejunum, ileum
What is the name for the "circular folds" found in the small intestine?
What do intestinal glands (crypts of leiberkuhn) contain?
Tubular glands, paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, stem cells
Where are Brunner's glands found? what do they produce?
In the Duodenum submucosa. produce alkaline mucous
What are the layers of the muscularis externa in the small intestine?
Outer longitudinal and Inner circular
Where are lymphatic nodules found in the ileum?
lamina propria and submucosa
What are M (microfold) cells?
specialized epithelial cells in ileum overlying Peyer's patches
What is the name for the aggregated lymphatic follicles in the ileum?
What structures are missing from the large intestine that are found in the small intestine?
No Plicae circularis or villi
what are the layers of the muscularis externa of the large intestine?
Two layers, with the Teniae Coli (outer longitudinal)
where is the vermiform appendix located?
exiting to the cecum, inferior to the ileum
Name the 3 parts of the pancreas
which glands are responsible for the exocrine activity of the pancreas?
compound acinar glands
which glands act as endocrine glands for the pancreas?
Islets of Langerhans
What is another name for Islets of Langerhans?
what is the largest internal organ of the body?
what percentage of blood is oxygenated when it is delivered to the liver?
what is the predominant type of blood entering the liver
oxygen poor, nutrient rich blood
what cell type absorbs any toxins found in the blood?
from what vein does oxygen poor, nutrient rich blood enter the liver?
what is the structural/functional unit of the liver?
what is the hepatic lobule composed of?
stacks of plates of hepatocytes
separated by anastomosing sinusoids
What cell projects microvilli into the perisinusiodal space?
what are the largest cells lining the sinusoids? what is their function?
Kupffer cells - phagocytotic function. breakdown any damaged/old red blood cells
what structures allow bile to move between hepatocyte plates?
what is the main function of the Gallbladder?
CONCENTRATION of bile. does not produce it
what histological trademark is seen on slides of the gallbladder?
a very large Muscularis externa layer
what do parietal cells produce?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
which cells produce gastrin?
what structure opens to permit the passage of chyme into the duodenum?
what is the name of the small pouches found along the large intestine?