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gross anatomy- semester 2 test 2 > Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology Deck (52):
1

What does the digestive system consist of?

The alimentary canal and associated digestive organs

2

What are the layers of the digestive system wall?

(From lumen outward)
1) mucosa
2) submucosa
3) muscularis externa
4) serosa or adventitia

3

WHat are the 3 layers of mucosa in the digestive wall?

Lining epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

4

What layer of the mucosa is made of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium?

Lining epithelium

5

which type of tissue is the lamina propria made of?

Loose (areolar) connective tissue

6

what type of muscle is the muscular is mucosae made of?

Smooth muscle tissue

7

What plexus is found in the submucosa?

Meissner's plexus

8

What nerve plexus is found in the muscularis externa?

Myenteric nerve plexus (Auerbach's plexus)

9

What is the serosa made of?

Mesothelium and loose connective tissue

10

What is the adventitia made of?

loose (areolar) connective tissue

11

What are the two mucous glands found in the esophagus?

Esophageal glands (proper) - Submucosa
Esophageal cardiac glands - Lamina propria

12

Name the 4 subdivisions of the stomach

Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus

13

which subdivision of the stomach attaches to the lower esophageal sphincter?

Cardia

14

which subdivision of the stomach contain glands that secrete HCl and Pepsin?

Fundus/body

15

what type of epithelium comprises the mucosa of the stomach?

Simple columnar epithelium

16

WHat are the 3 layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa

1) outer longitudinal
2) middle circular
3) inner oblique

17

which layer of the stomach lies deepest to the mucosa?

Serosa

18

name the 3 parts of fundic glands

Isthmus, neck, base

19

what type of granules are found within chief cells?

Zymogen granules

20

What do chief cells produce?

Pepsinogen and gastric lipase

21

name the 3 parts of the small intestine in order

Duodenum, Jejunum, ileum

22

What is the name for the "circular folds" found in the small intestine?

Plicae Circulares

23

What do intestinal glands (crypts of leiberkuhn) contain?

Tubular glands, paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, stem cells

24

Where are Brunner's glands found? what do they produce?

In the Duodenum submucosa. produce alkaline mucous

25

What are the layers of the muscularis externa in the small intestine?

Outer longitudinal and Inner circular

26

Where are lymphatic nodules found in the ileum?

lamina propria and submucosa

27

What are M (microfold) cells?

specialized epithelial cells in ileum overlying Peyer's patches

28

What is the name for the aggregated lymphatic follicles in the ileum?

Peyer's patches

29

What structures are missing from the large intestine that are found in the small intestine?

No Plicae circularis or villi

30

what are the layers of the muscularis externa of the large intestine?

Two layers, with the Teniae Coli (outer longitudinal)

31

where is the vermiform appendix located?

exiting to the cecum, inferior to the ileum

32

Name the 3 parts of the pancreas

Head
body
tail

33

which glands are responsible for the exocrine activity of the pancreas?

compound acinar glands

34

which glands act as endocrine glands for the pancreas?

Islets of Langerhans

35

What is another name for Islets of Langerhans?

Pancreatic islets

36

what is the largest internal organ of the body?

the liver

37

what percentage of blood is oxygenated when it is delivered to the liver?

25%

38

what is the predominant type of blood entering the liver

oxygen poor, nutrient rich blood

39

what cell type absorbs any toxins found in the blood?

hepatocytes

40

from what vein does oxygen poor, nutrient rich blood enter the liver?

Portal vein

41

what is the structural/functional unit of the liver?

Hepatic lobules

42

what is the hepatic lobule composed of?

stacks of plates of hepatocytes
separated by anastomosing sinusoids

43

What cell projects microvilli into the perisinusiodal space?

hepatocytes

44

what are the largest cells lining the sinusoids? what is their function?

Kupffer cells - phagocytotic function. breakdown any damaged/old red blood cells

45

what structures allow bile to move between hepatocyte plates?

bile caniliculi

46

what is the main function of the Gallbladder?

CONCENTRATION of bile. does not produce it

47

what histological trademark is seen on slides of the gallbladder?

a very large Muscularis externa layer

48

what do parietal cells produce?

Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

49

which cells produce gastrin?

G cells

50

what structure opens to permit the passage of chyme into the duodenum?

Pyloric sphincter

51

what is the name of the small pouches found along the large intestine?

Haustra

52

what are the Omental appendages?

small sacks of adipose found along the external surface of the large intestine