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Flashcards in digestion and metabolism Deck (114):
1

In order what are the six major processes involved in digestion?

1. Ingestion

2. Propulsion

3. Mechanical breakdown

4. Chemical digestion

5. Absorption

6. Defaecation

2

what areas of the body involve mechanical breakdown?

mouth: chewing and mixing food with saliva

stomach: churning and mixing with gastric juice

small intestine: segmentation = mixes food with digestive juices and aids in nutrient absorption

3

What are the names of the 4 basic layers of the alimentary canal and what are they made of? 

Serosa- epithelium and connective tissue

Muscularis externa- longatudinal muscle and circular muscle 

Submusosa - loose connective tissue with elastic

Mucosa- Epithelium, lamina propia and muscularis mucisae

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4

What is the function of the Mucosa layer of the alimentary canal? 

Mucosa - The most inner laye which is made up of three subay 

 1. Epithelium: secretes mucus protects the mucosa, helps move food along secretes digestive enzymes chemical digestion secretes hormones control motility and secretion of digestive juices absorbs nutrients.

2. Lamina propria: contains capillaries absorption of the end products of digestion, nourishes epithelium lymphoid tissue protection against bacteria and pathogens.

3. Muscularis mucosa: produces folds in the mucosa of the small intestine to increase the surface area for absorption

5

What is the structure and function of the Submucosa layer of the alimentary canal? 

Loose connective tissue with elastic tissue allows stretch and recoil

Rich supply of: 

blood vessels:  for nutrient absorption

lymphatic vessels: for transports lipids

lymphoid tissue: for  immune function

nerves: parasympathetic -->  motility and secretion

              sympathetic --> motility and secretion

6

What is the function of the Mucularis externa layer of the alimentary canal? 

Responsible for peristalsis (propulsion) and segmentation (mechanical breakdown).

Two smooth muscle layers:
- inner circular - form sphincters act as valves to control the passage of food
- outer longitudinal


 

7

What is the function of the Serosa layer of the alimentary canal? 

Connective tissue covered with a thin layer of squamous epithelium.


Functions: protection of the alimentary canal anchors the alimentary tissues within the peritoneal cavity

8

What are the functions of the mouth?

Digestive functions of the oral cavity (mouth):

1. Ingestion

2. Mastication (chewing) - mechanical breakdown 

3. Mixing food with saliva

4. Taste sensation

5. Initiating chemical digestion - amylase begins chemical digestionoof charbohydrates only

6. Propulsion - swallowing food (deglutition)

9

Chemical digestion is initiated in the mouth. What enzymes are secereted in the mouth and what do they break down? 

Amylase begins chemical digestion of charbohydrates only.

Lingual lipase- begins break down of small chain fats

 

10

Describe what happends in box A.

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Glycolysis-  Glucose is turned into Pyruvic Acid

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11

What do the purple arrows signify? 

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Anabolic reactions

12

What do the blue arrows signify?

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Catabolic reactions

13

Where abouts in the cell does stage 2 occur in the cell?

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cytoplasm 

14

Where abouts in a cell does stage 3 occur?

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mitocondria

15

what is the name of the intermediate molecule that each of the nutrients are eventualy converted to? 

They are all broken down into Acytyl Co enzyme A 

16

What is the name of the series of reactions that occur in the green box? 

The Krebs Cycle 

17

What are the three things made by the Krebs Cycle? 

Carbon dioxide 

Hydrogen Ions 

ATP 

18

what happens to excess glucose in the body?

 

It is turned into Glycogen through the process called glycogenisis and stored as fat. 

19

What is the process labels A? 

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Electron transport chain 

20

What molecule must be removed from amino acids beofre they can be used in this series of reactions? 

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Ammonia 

21

What molecules are used in energy production in most tissues excluding nervous tissue? 

fatty acids 

keytones 

glycerol

22

What is the hormone that donminate stage three? 

 

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Insulin

23

Why does the liver have a dual blood supply? 

To supply it with blooth oxygen rich blood and nutrient rich blood.

 

The hepatic artery supplies the liver with oxygenated blood from the lungs, and the portal vein supplies it with nutrient-rich blood from the intestines.

24

The liver has two routes of blood supply. Which vessel supplirs blood from the small intestine and which supplies blood from the systemic circulation? And which percentage comes from each vessel?

Systemic circulation- Hepatic artery

Small intestine- Hepatic portal vein 

25

The liver plays a vital role in stabilising blood glucose leves around 5mmol/L. What three processes occur in the liver to maintain glucose homeostasis and when so these precesses take place (eg glucose too high or too low). 

  1. Glycogenisis - too much glucose in blood steam 
  2. Glycogenalysis - not enough glucose in blood stream 
  3. Gluconeogenisis - not enough glucose in blood steam = make glucose from non-glucose stores

26

What are the names of the three glands the mouth? 

 

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27

What are the functions of the stomach? 

1. Mechanical breakdown – mixing food with gastric juice (i.e. liquefaction of food chyme)
2. Chemical digestion (proteins)
3. Absorption (fat-soluble substances ONLY, e.g. alcohol)
4. Storage of food
5. Propulsion – to the small intestine
6. Secretion of Intrinsic factor

28

What is the empty and full volume of the stomach? 

 

50ml empty 

4L when full 

29

what are the internal folds of the stomach lining called?

Rugae

30

Describe the structure and function of the muscularis externa (modified) of the stomach. 

Structure- circular & longitudinal  Function-  mix, churn and propel food and the oblique muscle pummels the food and rams it into the small intestine

31

What is the structure and finction of the stomach muscosa.

This includes the types of cells and what they produce 

Structurte of mucosa- lining of simple columnar epithelium that produces an alkaline mucous, dotted with: gastric pits that contain mucous cells

These gastric glands produce 3L of
gastric juice per day,

These glands include:
chief cells – secrete pepsinogen
parietal cells – secrete HCl
enteroendocrine cells – secrete hormones that control gut motility and secretion

32

Which cells produce pepsinogen and which cells produce HCl? Where are these cells found? 

chief cells – secrete pepsinogen
parietal cells – secrete HCl
 

Found in the stomach 

33

Gastric juice creates a harsh environment  HCl is corrosive. Protein digesting enzymes (proteases) can digest the stomach wall. For this reason the body has a three layered mucosal barrier. What are the three layers?

 

1. bicarbonate-rich fluid under an insoluble mucus on the stomach wall. Bicarbonate-ion rich musus nutralises acid that might get through the insoluble alkaline mucus. 
2. mucosal epithelial cells joined by tight junctions
3. damaged mucosal epithelial cells shed and quickly replaced

34

What happeneds then the mucosal layer of the stomach is broken? 

Leads to gastritis. Persistant damage leads to a gastic ulcer. 

35

what is the basic structure and function of the small intestines? 

 

To absorb as much nutrience as possible we want to have as much sueface area as possible. 

36

what are the tree sections of the small intestine? 

Duodenum 

Jejunum 

Ilium 

37

Which section of the small intestine recieves bile and pancreatic juices? 

Duodenum 

38

Which section of the small intestine is the major site of chemical and mechanical degestion as well as absorption? 

Jejunum  

39

How is the small intestine adapted for nutrient absorption? 

- length 

- mucosa/submucosa 

        - circular folds 

        - villi 

        - microvilli 

40

What is the function of the circular folds in the sall intestine? 

To slow the movement of chyme and thus increasing the time for nutirent absoption 

41

What do the micovilli of the small intestines do?

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Very small, densely packed villi on the surface of
individual absorptive epithelial cells form the “brush
border”

Plasma membrane bears enzymes that complete
carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid digestion
(brush
border enzymes)

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42

What is the function of the villi in the small intestines? 

 

nutrient and electrolyte absorption - epithelial columnar cells, core contains a capillary bed a

produce mucous - goblet cells  

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43

What are intestinal crypts? 

Intestinal crypts are are tubular glands locared in pits between villi. They secrete slightly alkaline intestinal juice that facilitates nutrient absorption. 

Enteroendocrine cells produce hormones that simulate the secretion of bile and pancreatic juice. 

44

what percentage of nutrienet absorption occurs in the small intestine? 

90%

45

as chyme is passed from the stomach into the small intestine what stops the stomach acids from eating away at the walls of the intestines? 

alkline intestinal mucus ans pancreatic juices help nutralise acidic chyme 

46

which enzyme completes the digestion of carbohydrates, protien, and nuckeic acids? 

Brush border enzymes 

47

once the nutrience in absorbed in the small intestines where does it go? (water soluble and lipid solulbe go different places) 

- nutrients (water soluble) absorbed into blood travel in the hepatic portal vein to the liver
- nutrients (lipid soluble) absorbed into the lymphatic circulation enter the blood at the thoracic duct

48

why are there circular folds in the small intestine?

to slow the movement of chyme and thus increasing the time fofr nutriene to be absorbed. (1cm tall)

49

                The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low  vThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is lowThe function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
a. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract.
b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.
c. distribute hormones
d. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

b. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage before releasing them to the circulation for cellular use.

50

The chemical and mechanical process of food breakdown are called:
a. digestion
b. absorption
c. ingestion
d. secretion

a. digestion

51

 When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called:
a. absorption
b. secretion
c. chemical digestion
d. mechanical digestion 

c. chemical digestion

52

               The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal liningThe sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal lining
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:
a. mesenteries
b. lamina propria
c. serosal lining
d. mucosal lining

a. mesenteries

53

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from lumen.
a. muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
b. serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
c. submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
d. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

d. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

54

Chyme is created in the
a. mouth
b. stomach
c. esophagus
d. small intestine

b. stomach

55

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
a. chief cells
b. parietal cells
c. serous cells
d. mucous neck cells

b. parietal cells

56

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
a. enteroendocrine cells
b. parietal cells
c. zymogenic cells
d. mucous neck cells

a. enteroendocrine cells

57

There are three phases of the gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs:
a. Before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought.
b. Immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients.
c. At the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time.
d. When the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required.

a. Before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought.

58

Peristaltic waves are:
a. segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
b. churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
c. pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

d. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

59

 Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of:
a. starches and complex carbohydrates
b. protein and peptide fragments
c. simple carbohydrates and alcohols
d. fatty acids 

b. protein and peptide fragments

60

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
a. gastrin
b. amylase
c. cholecystokinin
d. trypsin

b. amylase

61

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the:
a. portal vein
b. pancreatic acini
c. bile canaliculus
d. hepatopancreatic ampulla

d. hepatopancreatic ampulla

62

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called
a. diffusion
b. active transport
c. hydrolysis
d. denatured

c. hydrolysis

63

Secretin is an enzyme that is liberated by the small intestinal mucosa in response to:
a. acidic chyme entering the small intestine
b. irritation in the lining of the stomach
c. distention of the stomach
d. the enterogastric reflex

a. acidic chyme entering the small intestine

64

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
a. rennin
b. pepsin
c. lipase
d. cholecystokinin

c. lipase

65

Hepatocytes do not:
a. produce digestive enzymes
b. process nutrients
c. store fat-soluble vitamins
d. detoxify

a. produce digestive enzymes

66

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
a. cephalic
b. gastric
c. intestinal
d. enterogastric

d. enterogastric

67

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
a. B12
b. K
c. A
d. C

a. B12

68

 Due to hepatic action, a comparison of blood entering and leaving the liver shows that:
a. blood leaving the liver contains more glucose
b. blood leaving the liver contains more amino acids
c. blood leaving the liver usually has more ingested toxic substances
d. blood leaving the liver via the hepatic vein contains fewer nutrients and waste material than the blood that entered it 

d. blood leaving the liver via the hepatic vein contains fewer nutrients and waste material than the blood that entered it 

69

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of:
a. mastication
b. catabolism
c. anabolism
d. fermentation

b. catabolism

70

The solutes contained in saliva include:
a. only salts and minerals
b. only proteases and amylase
c. mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts and minerals
d. electrolytes digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes and IgA

d. electrolytes digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes and IgA

71

The terminal portion of the small intestine is know as the:
a. duodenum
b. ileum
c. jejunum
d. pyloric sphincter

b. ileum

72

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
a. lipids
b. carbohydrates
c. proteins
d. starches

a. lipids

73

_________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
a. Iron
b. Sodium
c. Phosphorus
d. Calcium

d. Calcium

74

As the food in the stomach is repeatedly squeezed and mixed with gastric juice, it is converted into a creamy paste called:
a. a bolus
 b. chyme
c. bile
d. feces

b. chyme

75

The function of the goblet cells is to:
a. absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
c. secrete buffers in order to keep the PH of the digestive tract close to neutral
d. provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms

b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

76

c Under normal conditions, the gastric mucosa pours out as much as:
a. 10 liters of gastric juice per hour
b. 1 pint of gastric juice following each meal.
c. 2 to 3 liters of gastric juice per day
d. 6 liters of gastric juice when the meal is usually heavy in fats 

c. 2 to 3 liters of gastric juice per day

77

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
a. dextrinase
b. amylase
c. trypsin
d. lipase

c. trypsin

78

The major function of the large intestine is to:
a. secrete digestive enzymes
b. remove waste materials
c. regulate the release of bile
d. reabsorb 95% of ingested water

b. remove waste materials

79

The site of production of secretin and cholecystokinin is the:
a. stomach
b. pancreas
c. small intestine
d. large intestine

c. small intestine

80

A fluid secreted in the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is:
a. bile
b. pancreatic juice
c. intestinal juice
d. gastric juice

a. bile

81

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fiber is the:
a. mucosa
b. submucosa
c. muscularis externa
d. serosa


b. submucosa

82

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves:
a. a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
b. cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
c. Secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
d. Bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

b. cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

83

Select the correct enzyme/substrate combination:
a. amylase: starches
b. chymotrypsin: neutral fats
c. nucleases: proteins
d. amylase: starches and nucleases: proteins

a. amylase: starches

84

You have just eaten French fries, buttered toast, ice cream and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you digest this food?
a. the pancreas
b. the buccal glands
c. the thyroid gland
d. the parotid glands

a. the pancreas

85

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
a. Sever indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
b. This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
c. Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
d. The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.

c. Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

86

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestines is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
a. plicae circularis and intestinal wall
b. the vast array of digestive enzymes
c. brunner glands
d. the rugae

a. plicae circularis and intestinal wall

87

Which of the following is not true of saliva?
a. cleanses the mouth
b. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
c. moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
d. dissolves food chemicals so they can tasted

b. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

88

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food the stomach:
a. initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
b. is the first site where absorption takes place
c. is the only place where fats are completely digested
d. is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

a. initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

89

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is:
a. fat
b. glucose
c. acetyl CoA
d. cellulose

b. glucose

90

Dietary fats are important because:
a. They keep blood pressure normal.
b. They help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins.
c. They contribute significantly to the health of the skin.
d. They help prevent the common cold.

b. They help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins.

91

 Which of the following statements best describes "complete protein"?
a. derived from meat and fish only
b. meets all the minimum daily requirements for a sound diet
c. derived from legumes and other plant material
d. must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth 

d. must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth 

92

 The term "metabolism" is best defined as:
a. the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
b. a measure of carbohydrate utilization
c. the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
d. the sum of energy produced by all the chemical reactions and mechanical work of the body 

d. the sum of energy produced by all the chemical reactions and mechanical work of the body 

93

The term "energy output" includes:
a. the energy lost as heat
b. the loss of organic molecules in urine
c. the loss or organic molecules in feces
d. the loss of energy to perspiration

a. the energy lost as heat

94

When proteins undergo deamination, a substance found in the urine is:
a. steroids
b. ammonia
c. acetyl CoA
d. ketone bodies

b. ammonia

95

 It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because:
a. vitamins provide protection against the common cold
b. very few foods contain vitamins
c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
d. all vitamins are water-soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization 

c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

96

Of all of the minerals required by the human body, ___________ and _________ account for three-quarter of the total.
a. zinc, selenium
b. potassium, sodium
c. sulfur, chlorine
 d. calcium, phosphorus

d. calcium, phosphorus

97

Anabolism includes reactions in which:
a. carbohydrate utilization increases
b. larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
c. structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
d. ketone bodies are formed

b. larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

98

Catabolism involves processes that:
a. cause a decline in circulating ketone bodies
b. mobilize fat during the post absorptive state
c. break down complex structures to simpler ones
d. elevate glucagon levels

c. break down complex structures to simpler ones

99

 The primary function of cellular respiration is to:
a. determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
b. provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
c. efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
d. generate ATP, which traps some of the chemical energy of food molecules in its high energy bonds 

d. generate ATP, which traps some of the chemical energy of food molecules in its high energy bonds 

100

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the:
a. post absorptive state
b. absorptive state
c. starvation period
d. period when the metabolic rate is lowest

b. absorptive state

101

Glycolysis is best defined as the:
a. Conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
c. conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide
d. formation of sugar

b. conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

102

Among the conditions required for measuring the basal metabolic rate is:
a. being in an absorptive state
b. remaining in an upright position
c. keeping the room temperature between 20-25 degrees C
d. sleeping

c. keeping the room temperature between 20-25 degrees C

103

The primary function of carbohydrates is to:
a. contribute to cell structure
b. maintain a large storehouse of glycogen
c. maintain energy production within the cells
d. form functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

c. maintain energy production within the cells

104

During normal conditions, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except:
a. production of energy
b. production of some hormones
c. production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
d. formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

a. production of energy

105

 In carbohydrate metabolism, the carbohydrates:
a. are converted into fat if present in excess
b. such as the monomer galactose are normally used to make ATP
c. are converted into fructose by the liver before they enter into general circulation
d. that are highly refined offer many valuable nutrients in addition to calories 

a. are converted into fat if present in excess

106

Minerals are substances that cannot be used for fuel. They:
a. include substance like carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
b. are the major electrolytes in the blood
c. help maintain body heat balance
d. help regulate liver by-products

b. are the major electrolytes in the blood

107

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body switches to fatty acids
a. liver
b. brain
c. pancreas
d. spleen

b. brain

108

Only the ______ forms urea.
a. kidney
b. pancreas
c. spleen
d. liver

d. liver

109

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it indicates increased metabolism of:
a. amino acids
b. fatty acids
c. glycogen
d. lactic acid

b. fatty acids

110

The pickup molecule for the Krebs cycle is ___________ acid.
a. isocitric
b. fumaric
c. oxaloacetic
d. malic

c. oxaloacetic

111

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which:
a. Glycogen is broken down to release glucose
b. glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
c. glycogen is formed
d. glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water

b. glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

112

elect the correct statement:
a. anabolism is the process of breaking down large substance into smaller ones
b. cellular respiration is a catabolic process
c. during oxidation reactions, substances gain electrons
d. during reduction reactions, substances lose electrons

b. cellular respiration is a catabolic process

113

Glucose can be obtained from:
a. glycogenolysis
b. fatty acid hydrolysis
c. protein anabolism
d. ketogenesis

a. glycogenolysis

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